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Moe's Moving in on Manhattan

Moe's Moving in on Manhattan


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New owners of First Avenue location are looking to be 'the guys' to take over Manhattan

Moe's Southwest Grill Manhattan Takeover

With some 43 spots, New York is among the top 10 states when it comes to locations of Moe’s Southwest Grill (according to the corporate site, Florida and Georgia top the list with 89 and 78 locations respectively), but save for one location in Queens and the stands in Yankee Stadium, most denizens of the city have had few opportunities to become acquainted with the chain. There’s the spot in Penn Station, which gives Long Islanders (who seem to be in love with it — there are eight or so locations on the island!) the opportunity to grab a quick Homewrecker burrito to eat on the LIRR, but otherwise little saturation. So it will be interesting to see what kind of inroads can be made into Manhattan by Glenn Buchholz and Frank Ferrantelli, the franchisees who last week announced the reopening of the First Avenue branch and their plans to open two more locations in the city by the end of 2013.

"We are thrilled to bring these restaurants into the heart of the city — it was only a matter of time before Moe’s took over Manhattan," Buchholz noted in a release.

If Buccholz and Ferrantelli plan to take over Manhattan, they’ll have a little thing called Chipotle that they’ll have to contend with, but for now they don’t seem intimidated. Reports are that they have big hopes to keep expanding and be "the guys" to bring Moe’s to prominence on the streets of downtown New York.

"We chose neighborhoods with a mix of residential and commercial occupants to get the brand in front of as large a cross-section of New York City customers as possible. We really like the Midtown East area," said Buchholz. "We’re aiming for late April in Kips Bay and early June in Murray Hill."

Arthur Bovino is The Daily Meal's executive editor. Follow Arthur on Twitter.


The Manhattan Diet: How New York City Women Stay Slim (Without Depriving Themselves)

Move over, French women! Turns out that Manhattan ladies might have the
secret to staying svelte while still enjoying all the perks of
living in a food mecca.

A new book, The Manhattan
Diet: Lose Weight While Living a Fabulous Life
, is filled with eating
tips and weight-loss success stories from real New York women -- and yes, they do treat themselves.

Manhattanite Eileen Daspin, a lifestyle and business journalist, decided to write The Manhattan Diet after seeing a story in The New York Times that said Manhattan was the thinnest borough.

"I'm married to chef Cesare Casella, I'm immersed in foodie culture and I feel like I'm surrounded by four-star restaurants, donut carts and frozen yogurt bars," she tells HealthySELF. "It just struck me as odd that a city that was so food-obsessed could also be skinny."

So how do the women of the Big Apple stay so slim? "The basic philosophy of The Manhattan Diet is to taste everything, but don't eat too much," says Daspin. "It's a balancing act -- portion control, not letting yourself get too hungry, not letting yourself feel deprived, allowing yourself to cheat."

To research her book, Daspin asked 25 of her fittest female friends and acquaintances to keep diet diaries. "They were fascinating," says Daspin, who found that those women consumed all kinds of things you wouldn't expect, from pasta and bread to cheese and wine. But, Daspin realized, they kept portions small. "If they had a really huge meal, they would [get back on track] the next day and double up on spin class."

Based on the meals of her diary-keepers, Daspin created a 28-day diet plan, available in the book, along with cookbook recommendations, recipes and lists of foods Manhattan women keep in their pantries (like pickled ginger, agave and Greek yogurt). "The Manhattan Diet is really a lifestyle, a way of eating, not carb-counting or watching fat grams," she says. "It's a tried and true diet based on how real women eat."

Here are 7 of Daspin's top tips for getting a Manhattan-woman body while still enjoying your life:

Buy small. According to Daspin, studies show that if you buy oversized packages of any kind of product, whether it's soap or cereal, you use more of it.

Don't eat too little. "Trying to stick to 1,000 calories a day is a recipe for failure," she says (not to mention unhealthy). "Eat with a lifetime in mind, not just a short-term goal."

Frozen grapes! Daspin says they're like mini popsicles.

Fat is your friend. "Instead of eating 16 ounces of Tasti D-Lite, have half a cup of real, full-fat ice cream," she says. Also, use olive oil, judiciously, and buy as high a quality brand as you can afford. "It will make your food taste better and be more satisfying," Daspin says.

Invest in a pair of sneakers and start walking. "Manhattan women walk everywhere -- taking their kids to school, grocery shopping, running out to get a magazine," Daspin says. "I walk to work, two miles a day. If you drive, park a mile away from your office."

Have fun! If you pick an exercise you like, it won't seem like a chore, Daspin says.

Definitely cheat! "I was really surprised at some of the junk food on my dieters' logs," Daspin says. "Good & Plenties, gummies, Frosted Flakes -- but always in tiny portions." A good way to manage this is to make little baggies of candies (28 M&Ms, 15 gummy bears, and so on), she says. "When you need a sugar fix, it's there for you, and the fact it's packaged in small bags will be a psychological deterrent from opening two or three."

Angela Ginn, registered dietitian and a spokesperson for the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, thinks The Manhattan Diet may be promising for weight control. "The key for anyone to lose weight," Ginn says, "is to move more, fill up on fiber and know that the occasional sweet treat will not derail your journey to a healthy lifestyle." Ditto for the occasional slice of New York-style pizza . yum.


Stretching Their $700,000 Budget for a One-Bedroom in Lower Manhattan. Which Option Would You Choose?

England natives Elliot Watson, left, and Jesse Mico were renting in Chinatown when they decided it was time to buy their first home together. The couple wanted to stay in the neighborhood, but weren’t sure their $700,000 budget would be enough. “We were completely green, not just to the process but to what was available to us,” Mr. Watson said. Katherine Marks for The New York Times

Jesse Mico and Elliot Watson have been writing their American adventure for nearly a decade. After growing up in England, they met through a mutual friend and eloped to Las Vegas in 2013, lived briefly in Los Angeles and then returned home.

For the next chapter, they decided to become New Yorkers, starting off as renters in Greenpoint, Brooklyn, before moving into a tiny two-bedroom in Chinatown. “We wanted to live in a movie and be in the thick of it, so we moved to Manhattan,” Mr. Watson said.

Their $2,100 rental “was like a subterranean thing, and it was dark and cozy,” he said. One room got a sliver of sunlight once a day. Ms. Mico called it “the Chinatown cave.”

They always renewed the lease for one year rather than two, daydreaming about buying. Two years ago, Ms. Mico, who works as a video producer, and Mr. Watson, a freelance writer, contacted Bruce Henderson, an associate broker at the Corcoran Group and a former record-industry colleague of Ms. Mico’s father, who is American.

[Did you recently buy or rent a home in the New York metro area? We want to hear from you. Email: [email protected]]

“We were completely green, not just to the process but to what was available to us,” Mr. Watson said.

The couple, both 31, hoped to find a one-bedroom co-op somewhere below 14th Street for no more than $700,000. They wanted to stay in Chinatown, but weren’t sure they could afford to. “We knew in our price range there were not many places available,” Ms. Mico said.

Most homes they saw felt cramped, with cupboard-like bathrooms where “people have to have things custom-built to fit the tiny space,” Mr. Watson said.

Because they had been living in the dark, sunlight was a priority. “We never felt like we could spend a day lounging around reading or having a long breakfast,” he said, adding that they longed for a place “where you don’t feel like you’ve got to get outside.”

Lower East Side One-Bedroom

Katherine Marks for The New York Times

This one-bedroom in Co-op Village, on the edge of the F.D.R. Drive, dated to the mid-1950s. The space was around 800 square feet, with a renovated bathroom and views of the Williamsburg Bridge. The price was $565,000, with monthly maintenance in the low $700s.

Lower East Side One-Bedroom Courtesy of Jacob Goldman/LoHo-Realty

Greenwich Village Studio With Loft

Katherine Marks for The New York Times

This studio in a 1921 building in the heart of Greenwich Village faced south through casement windows. It had a loft reached by a spiral staircase, and the living room ceilings were high, but the floor area was less than 600 square feet. The price was $695,000, with maintenance of around $1,300.

Greenwich Village Studio With Loft Courtesy of Brown Harris Stevens Katherine Marks for The New York Times

This 800-square-foot one-bedroom, in the Brutalist 1965 Chatham Towers, had views of Columbus Park through three large picture windows. The listing, which didn’t include photos, indicated that the seller was seeking backup offers. The price was $699,000, with maintenance in the $1,600s.

Chinatown One-Bedroom Courtesy of Watson/Mico

Scarlet O’Hara

The first cocktail on our list of awesome quick & easy cocktails with Southern Comfort, is the Scarlet O’Hara.

Mixing Southern Comfort with Cranberry Juice isn’t something that would immediately spring to mind as a good mix, but let me tell you: it works.

Scarlet O'Hara Cocktail Recipe

Ingredients

  • Southern Comfort 50ml / 1.7oz.
  • A dash of Lime Juice
  • Cranberry Juice 120ml / 4.1oz.
  • a wedge of lime
  • Add Ice, Southern Comfort, Lime Juice, and Cranberry Juice to a Highball Glass.
  • Garnish with a wedge of lime.


High anxiety: super-rich find supertall skyscraper an uncomfortable perch

The supertall 432 Park Avenue in New York under construction. ‘I don’t necessarily want to put a Freudian spin on that – but people have,’ one architect observed. Photograph: Erik Pendzich/Rex Shutterstock

The supertall 432 Park Avenue in New York under construction. ‘I don’t necessarily want to put a Freudian spin on that – but people have,’ one architect observed. Photograph: Erik Pendzich/Rex Shutterstock

Wealthy residents of 432 Park Avenue have complained of leaks, malfunctions and wind sway – much to the delight of earthbound New Yorkers

Last modified on Sun 7 Feb 2021 08.02 GMT

A bout six years ago, the supertall residential tower 432 Park Avenue offered rich buyers something other buildings could not: a chance to live atop Manhattan’s famed skyline and far above their millions of fellow New Yorkers below.

But some of the hugely wealthy residents who have since moved into the 1,396ft structure have reportedly found that living in the western hemisphere’s “tallest residential tower” had unsettling drawbacks – potentially attributable to its great height.

According to the New York Times, some of 432 Park’s residents are sparring with its developers over issues such as “millions of dollars of water damage from plumbing and mechanical issues frequent elevator malfunctions and walls that creak like the galley of a ship”. This building, which opponents had compared to a “middle finger” to the rest of the city due to its controversial height, seemed to now be giving some of its own residents the same cheeky gesture.

“I was convinced it would be the best building in New York,” Sarina Abramovich, an early 432 Park resident, complained to the newspaper. “They’re still billing it as God’s gift to the world, and it’s not.”

Abramovich and her husband, described as “retired business owners” in the oil and gas industry, bought a 3,500-sq-ft apartment there for almost $17m in 2016, as a “secondary home” close to their adult children. When Abramovich was poised to move in, she said, neither the building nor apartment were finished.

“They put me in a freight elevator surrounded by steel plates and plywood, with a hard-hat operator,” she reportedly remarked of 432 Park, the design of which was inspired by a designer trash can. “That’s how I went up to my hoity-toity apartment before closing.” The problems worsened, and included “a number of floods”. In one instance, water rushed into Abramovich’s apartment from several floors above, allegedly resulting in some $500,000 in damage.

There’s also “wind sway”. A 1,000ft building may sway several inches on a day with normal winds. On days with 50mph wind, such a tower may move approximately six inches. In the rare event of 100mph gusts, this height structure could move up to two feet, the New York Times reported.

New York City’s Empire State Building, with a roof height of 1,250ft, is supposed to move approximately one inch in rapid winds, per Discovery. Chicago’s Willis Tower, with a roof height of 1,450ft, has an average sway of six inches from its “true center”, but is designed to move a maximum of three feet.

Midtown Manhattan from above at twilight, including 432 Park Avenue. Photograph: Yukinori Hasumi/Getty Images

However, wind sway is especially pronounced in supertall buildings that are also super-skinny – they are often referred to as pencil towers. For 432 Park, the height-to-width ratio is reportedly 15:1. The property website Curbed New York explained that “to put that in perspective, if you place a standard ruler on its end, it has a ratio of 12:1.” Another way: the Empire State Building is 424ft across, whereas 432 Park stretches slightly more than 90ft across.

In a statement Lendlease, the construction manager, said: “As a leading builder in the industry, Lendlease is always committed to delivering its projects safely and in accordance with the highest specified standards. We have been in contact with our client regarding some comments from tenants, which we are currently evaluating. We cannot elaborate at this time since we are in the midst of this review.”

One of 432 Park’s developers, CIM Group, said in a statement to the Times that it’s “a successfully designed, constructed and virtually sold-out project … Like all new construction, there were maintenance and close-out items during that period.”

Complaints about perils of living in a luxurious supertall building on a stretch of similarly luxurious supertall buildings known as “Billionaire’s Row”, feels like the apex of rich people problems. Given the deadly pandemic and ongoing economic devastation in the rest of New York, reaction to the Times article has included gleeful schadenfreude and sombre told-you-sos by many citizens.

“Condos at 432 Park are like GameStop shares for billionaires,” Daniel Bergstresser, finance professor at the Brandeis International Business School, wrote on Twitter.

Twitter user @eddiemajor commented: “432 Park Avenue is the most obnoxious building in all of Manhattan and this story warmed my heart.”

One reader commented on the Times’ website: “I was about to complain that the Times never published any feel good stories and then y’all come through with this little gem. Thanks for making my morning!”

Abramovich herself admitted to the Times that the woes of billionaires wouldn’t spur significant sympathy, but came forward as a matter of principle, commenting: “Everything here was camouflage … If I knew then what I know now, I would have never bought.”

Supertall ‘pencil towers’ have become an increasingly prominent feature of the Manhattan skyline. Photograph: Spencer Platt/Getty Images

Others see a more serious side to the story.

“We’ve been following the safety concerns of supertalls for a long time,” Sean Khorsandi, executive director of the preservation group Landmark West!, told the Guardian. “I was in architecture school on 9/11. We watched the towers fall. There were all sorts of symposiums and public statements that we’re never going to build [that] tall again” he said. “All we’ve done in the 20 years since is build even taller.”

Architect Stephen B Jacobs, president and founder of Stephen B Jacobs Group PC has worked on a wide variety of projects since starting his firm in 1967 – ranging from historic preservation to large-scale residential design. Some have exceeded 50 storeys and his firm is presently working on a slender, 800ft building on Manhattan’s East Side that has spurred its own controversies over height.

Although Jacobs is no stranger to height, he said of supertalls: “They’re totally irrational.”

Jacobs, who believes that these buildings were conceived to create the experience of “living up in the sky, for the richest” of the one-percenters, said: “I’m not really that interested in serving that market. I think the challenges that we have that we should be focusing on is how we provide housing for the vast majority of people that really need it.

“The whole purpose here is to be the tallest,” Jacobs continued. “I don’t necessarily want to put a Freudian spin on that – but people have.”


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FINALLY. a real, honest-to-Hashem method for making real lower east side SALT FERMENTED KOSHER DILL PICKLES, as directed by Moe, a 90+ year old former pickle master

Last month a friend and I attended what turned out to be a spectacular free presentation on the history of the traditional kosher dill pickle, as they were made and sold out of barrels in the Jewish neighborhoods of the lower east side of New York City during the Jewish immigration wave of the early 20th century.

Rabbi Marcus (of www.rabbipickle.com) tells the story of how he befriended an 90+ year old former lower east side pickle maker named Moe, who wanted to pass on his traditional technique for making kosher dills to the kids of the congregation. Well as the Rabbi explains in the workshop, not only did the kids show up, but the parents did too. He soon realized that this was no longer just a kids activity, and he started to expand his presentations. (Note to mods, I am in no way associated with the Traveling Pickle Factory- I am just an enthusiastic participant).

So as the story goes, sadly Moe passed on a few years ago, but his pickle recipe lives on through Rabbi Marcus and his pickle making disciples. If he comes to your area, I can't recommend his workshop highly enough.

First, let's get a few things out of the way.

- Making Moe's traditional pickles is dead easy. It just takes some time.

- THE MOST IMPORTANT THING TO REMEMBER: The salt to water brine ratio. You have to get this right, because this dictates how the pickles will ferment, and how they will taste. (Too little salt and they will not properly ferment. Too much salt and they will become inedible.) All the other ingredients (dill, spice, garlic, etc.) are to taste-- that's the artistry of the pickle. The brine is the science. If you don't get the science right, the art fails automatically.

- I like vinegar. You like vinegar. VINEGAR DOES NOT BELONG IN MOE'S TRADITIONAL KOSHER DILL METHOD! All of the sour flavor in traditional kosher dills is developed strictly by the fermentation of the cucumbers in brine. The addition of vinegar (as well as cooking pickles using canning methods) are relatively modern modifications to traditional recipes initiated by the food processing industry to extend shelf life. But hey, if you really like vinegar, go ahead and try it. But that's not how Moe did it :)

- Whether the pickles turn out to be new pickles, half sours, or full sours depends only on one factor-- time. The longer the cucumbers sit in the brine, the more sour they will become. If you leave them in the brine too long beyond full sour, they will become unappealingly soft in the middle. The window of time to eat a full sour at peak crispiness is only a couple of weeks. This is the reason it's virtually impossible to buy truly fresh traditionally made kosher dill pickles at the supermarket- even the fresh, uncooked refrigerated versions like Claussen contain vinegar and other preservative agents. (This is easily verified if you look at the ingredient label, as I did)

- Rabbi Marcus acknowledged that kirbys are of course the traditional pickling cucumber. However, he advised that as pickle novices we begin with Persian cucumbers. Unlike kirbys, Persian cucumbers give off very little water in the fermentation process and will not throw off the water to salt ratio as much as kirbys can. Once you've made a few batches with Persians with the measurements listed below (and have tasted and gotten used to the proper salt content in a brine), try it with kirbys. You'll eventually be able to judge by taste when the brine is salty enough. My first attempt at making pickles with kirbys turned out great- I added a little additional salt to compensate for the extra water the kirbys would give off.

So without further ado, gather the necessary ingredients and apparatus.

1 32-oz plastic deli container with lid (you'll see why plastic is important below)
16 oz spring water, room temperature
2 tbsp Diamond Kosher Salt (this brand is important-- not all kosher salt is the same shape and volume will measure out differently, and larger crystals may have a harder time dissolving. If you can't find Diamond Kosher salt, you should know that I weighed mine out at about 20g)

THE ART:
(This part is to taste, so modify Moe's recipe as you see fit)

Approx 2 tbsp pickling spice (more on this later-- not all pickling spice is the same)
If your pickling spice does not contain small whole dried red peppers, add a couple to your mix- 1 to 2 for a mild one, and several more for a less traditional spicy pickle.
2-3 medium cloves of garlic
Several Persian cucumbers (try to find ones that are not too long and will fit comfortably in the 32oz deli container. If they are too long to fit, don't worry-- cut them in half. They will pickle just as well.)
1 sprig fresh dill

1. Add water and salt to plastic deli container. Place lid on tightly and shake vigorously to dissolve salt.
2. Add pickling spice, replace lid and shake vigorously.
3. Add garlic cloves.
4. Inspect the cucumbers. Make sure that stems have been fully trimmed, as these can over ferment and cause the pickles to too easily soften. Pack pickles vertically in the container. The idea is to pack them tightly down into the container, so that they will resist floating to the top. You want to keep them fully submerged in the brine, and they will not want to cooperate. Pickle tips that are exposed above the brine level will not ferment at the same rate as the submerged portion.
5. Lay the dill frond ON TOP of the brine! The dill is not a part of the brine and will infuse its essence as the pickles ferment. This is not to say that you should worry if it submerges on its own (it will, eventually).
6. Loosely place the lid on top-- DO NOT SEAL IT DOWN TIGHTLY. As the cucumbers ferment, they will give off gas which will cause a sealed lid to bulge and possibly pop off unexpectedly. You may wish to poke small holes in the plastic lid to help with ventilation.
7. Leave the cucumbers out on your counter top (or in a window) for one day (I left mine out for two, and it helped to speed up the fermentation though I wouldn't leave it out for much longer). The warmer temperature will help to activate the fermentation process. Remember, placing the pickles in the fridge does not stop the fermentation-- it just slows it down.
8. Place pickles in the refrigerator. You may see bits of white scum float to the top as a byproduct of fermentation. I didn't bother to skim mine as there really was very little, and the results were great. But feel free to skim yours if you like. Rabbi Marcus didn't mention anything about skimming.

And now, the results. Please note that these timetables are specific to my experience in Los Angeles summertime weather-- actual time will vary depending on your climate, room temperature and the temperature of your refrigerator.

In my experience, I have new pickles after 3 days, half sours after about a week and a half, and full sours after three weeks.

And that's Moe's method, in an admittedly overly detailed, ungainly nutshell.

One final note on pickling spice. Moe told Rabbi Marcus that no professional pickle maker makes his own pickling spice-- they all buy it in vast bulk quantities the same general suppliers. As a result, the Rabbi basically told us to go to any store and buy some. This turned out to be a little more of a problem than I anticipated. The pickling spice handed out at the workshop yielded perfect pickles. (I don't know who he purchases from.) But pickling spice mixtures are indeed different, and as I found out after buying a quantity of Penzey's pickling spice, cloves really don't belong in a kosher dill brine. (While their spices are incredibly fresh, Penzey's is a midwestern company, and as such I really shouldn't have expected them to have a proper NY kosher dill pickle blend-- theirs is more suited for a sweet bread and butter pickle.)

I'm still trying to figure out what the perfect pickling spice combination for a kosher dill is. In the blend we used at the workshop, I was able to identify crumbled bay leaves, yellow mustard seeds, whole dried red chile peppers (you get a really lovely, spicy dill if you add several of these) and dried dill seed. However, there were other spices I simply was not able to identify).


Contents

Early names Edit

The Bronx was called Rananchqua [17] by the native Siwanoy [18] band of Lenape (also known historically as the Delawares), while other Native Americans knew the Bronx as Keskeskeck. [19] It was divided by the Aquahung River.

The origin of Jonas Bronck (c. 1600–43 ) has been contested. Documents indicate that he was a Swedish-born immigrant from Komstad, Norra Ljunga parish, in Småland, Sweden, who arrived in New Netherland during the spring of 1639. [11] [20] [21] [22] [23] [24] Bronck became the first recorded European settler in the present-day Bronx and built a farm named "Emmaus" close to what today is the corner of Willis Avenue and 132nd Street in Mott Haven. [25] He leased land from the Dutch West India Company on the neck of the mainland immediately north of the Dutch settlement of New Haarlem (on Manhattan Island), and bought additional tracts from the local tribes. He eventually accumulated 500 acres (200 ha) between the Harlem River and the Aquahung, which became known as Bronck's River or the Bronx [River]. Dutch and English settlers referred to the area as Bronck's Land. [20] The American poet William Bronk was a descendant of Pieter Bronck, either Jonas Bronck's son or his younger brother, but most probably a nephew or cousin, as there was an age difference of 16 years. [26] Much work on the Swedish claim has been undertaken by Brian G. Andersson, former Commissioner of NYC's Dept. of Records, who assisted in organizing a 375th Anniversary celebration in Bronck's hometown in 2014. [27]

Use of definite article Edit

The Bronx is referred to with the definite article as "The Bronx", both legally [28] and colloquially. [29] The County of Bronx does not place "The" immediately before "Bronx" in formal references, unlike the coextensive Borough of the Bronx, nor does the United States Postal Service in its database of Bronx addresses (the city and state mailing-address format is simply "Bronx, NY"). [30] The region was apparently named after the Bronx River and first appeared in the "Annexed District of The Bronx" created in 1874 out of part of Westchester County. It was continued in the "Borough of The Bronx", which included a larger annexation from Westchester County in 1898. The use of the definite article is attributed to the style of referring to rivers. [31] [32] A time-worn story explanation for the use of the definite article in the borough's name stems from the phrase "visiting the Broncks", referring to the settler's family. [33]

The capitalization of the borough's name is sometimes disputed. Generally, the definite article is lowercase in place names ("the Bronx") except in official references. The definite article is capitalized ("The Bronx") at the beginning of a sentence or in any other situation when a normally lowercase word would be capitalized. [34] However, some people and groups refer to the borough with a capital letter at all times, such as Bronx Borough Historian Lloyd Ultan, [35] The Bronx County Historical Society, and the Bronx-based organization Great and Glorious Grand Army of The Bronx. These people say that the definite article is part of the proper name. [36] [37] In particular, the Great and Glorious Grand Army of The Bronx is leading efforts to make the city refer to the borough with an uppercase definite article in all uses, comparing the lowercase article in the Bronx's name to "not capitalizing the 's' in 'Staten Island.'" [37]

European colonization of the Bronx began in 1639. The Bronx was originally part of Westchester County, but it was ceded to New York County in two major parts (West Bronx, 1874 and East Bronx, 1895) before it became Bronx County. Originally, the area was part of the Lenape's Lenapehoking territory inhabited by Siwanoy of the Wappinger Confederacy. Over time, European colonists converted the borough into farmlands.

Before 1914 Edit

The development of the Bronx is directly connected to its strategic location between New England and New York (Manhattan). Control over the bridges across the Harlem River plagued the period of British colonial rule. The King's Bridge, built in 1693 where Broadway reached the Spuyten Duyvil Creek, was a possession of Frederick Philipse, lord of Philipse Manor. [38] The tolls were resented by local farmers on both sides of the creek, and in 1759, Jacobus Dyckman and Benjamin Palmer led them in building a free bridge across the Harlem River. [39] After the American Revolutionary War, the King's Bridge toll was abolished. [40] [38]

The territory now contained within Bronx County was originally part of Westchester County, one of the 12 original counties of the English Province of New York. The present Bronx County was contained in the town of Westchester and parts of the towns in Yonkers, Eastchester, and Pelham. In 1846, a new town was created by division of Westchester, called West Farms. The town of Morrisania was created, in turn, from West Farms in 1855. In 1873, the town of Kingsbridge was established within the former borders of Yonkers, roughly corresponding to the modern Bronx neighborhoods of Kingsbridge, Riverdale, and Woodlawn Heights.

Among famous settlers in the Bronx during the 19th and early 20th centuries were author Willa Cather, tobacco merchant Pierre Lorillard, and inventor Jordan L. Mott, who established Mott Haven to house the workers at his iron works. [41]

The consolidation of the Bronx into New York City proceeded in two stages. In 1873, the state legislature annexed Kingsbridge, West Farms, and Morrisania to New York, effective in 1874 the three towns were soon abolished in the process. [42] [43]

The whole territory east of the Bronx River was annexed to the city in 1895, three years before New York's consolidation with Brooklyn, Queens, and Staten Island. This included the Town of Westchester (which had voted against consolidation in 1894) and portions of Eastchester and Pelham. [5] [42] [44] [45] [46] The nautical community of City Island voted to join the city in 1896.

On January 1, 1898, the consolidated City of New York was born, including the Bronx as one of the five distinct boroughs (at the same time, the Bronx's territory moved from Westchester County into New York County, which already contained Manhattan and the rest of pre-1874 New York City).

On April 19, 1912, those parts of New York County which had been annexed from Westchester County in the past decades were newly constituted as Bronx County, the 62nd and last county to be created by the state, effective in 1914. [42] [47] Bronx County's courts opened for business on January 2, 1914 (the same day that John P. Mitchel started work as Mayor of New York City). [6] Marble Hill, Manhattan was now connected to the Bronx, but it did not become part of that county by a historical accident due to changes in waterways.

After 1914 Edit

The history of the Bronx during the 20th century may be divided into four periods: a boom period during 1900–29, with a population growth by a factor of six from 200,000 in 1900 to 1.3 million in 1930. The Great Depression and post World War II years saw a slowing of growth leading into an eventual decline. The mid to late century were hard times, as the Bronx changed during 1950–85 from a predominantly moderate-income to a predominantly lower-income area with high rates of violent crime and poverty in some areas. The Bronx has experienced an economic and developmental resurgence starting in the late 1980s that continues into today. [48]

New York City expands Edit

The Bronx was a mostly rural area for many generations, with small farms supplying the city markets. In the late 19th century, however, it grew into a railroad suburb. Faster transportation enabled rapid population growth in the late 19th century, involving the move from horse-drawn street cars to elevated railways and the subway system, which linked to Manhattan in 1904. [48]

The South Bronx was a manufacturing center for many years and was noted as a center of piano manufacturing in the early part of the 20th century. In 1919, the Bronx was the site of 63 piano factories employing more than 5,000 workers. [49]

At the end of World War I, the Bronx hosted the rather small 1918 World's Fair at 177th Street and DeVoe Avenue. [5] [50]

The Bronx underwent rapid urban growth after World War I. Extensions of the New York City Subway contributed to the increase in population as thousands of immigrants came to the Bronx, resulting in a major boom in residential construction. Among these groups, many Irish Americans, Italian Americans, and especially Jewish Americans settled here. In addition, French, German, Polish, and other immigrants moved into the borough. As evidence of the change in population, by 1937, 592,185 Jews lived in the Bronx (43.9% of the borough's population), [51] while only 54,000 Jews lived in the borough in 2011. Many synagogues still stand in the Bronx, but most have been converted to other uses. [52]

Change Edit

Bootleggers and gangs were active in the Bronx during Prohibition (1920–33). Irish, Italian, Jewish, and Polish gangs smuggled in most of the illegal whiskey, and the oldest sections of the borough became poverty-stricken.

Between 1930 and 1960, moderate and upper income Bronxites (predominantly non-Hispanic Whites) began to relocate from the southwestern neighborhoods of the borough. This migration has left a mostly poor African American and Hispanic (largely Puerto Rican) population in the West Bronx. One significant factor that shifted the racial and economic demographics was the construction of Co-op City, built with the intent of housing middle-class residents in family-sized apartments. The high-rise complex played a significant role in draining middle-class residents from older tenement buildings in the borough's southern and western fringes. Most predominantly non-Hispanic White communities today are located in the eastern and northwestern sections of the borough.

From the early 1960s to the early 1980s, the quality of life changed for some Bronx residents. Historians and social scientists have suggested many factors, including the theory that Robert Moses' Cross Bronx Expressway destroyed existing residential neighborhoods and created instant slums, as put forward in Robert Caro's biography The Power Broker. [53] Another factor in the Bronx's decline may have been the development of high-rise housing projects, particularly in the South Bronx. [54] Yet another factor may have been a reduction in the real estate listings and property-related financial services offered in some areas of the Bronx, such as mortgage loans or insurance policies—a process known as redlining. Others have suggested a "planned shrinkage" of municipal services, such as fire-fighting. [55] [56] There was also much debate as to whether rent control laws had made it less profitable (or more costly) for landlords to maintain existing buildings with their existing tenants than to abandon or destroy those buildings. [57]

In the 1970s, parts of the Bronx were plagued by a wave of arson. Many buildings were purposely set in fire for several years throughout the decade. The burning of buildings was predominantly in the poorest communities, such as the South Bronx. One explanation of this event was that landlords decided to burn their low property-value buildings and take the insurance money, as it was easier for them to get insurance money than to attempt to refurbish a dilapidated building or sell a building in a severely distressed area. [58] The Bronx became identified with a high rate of poverty and unemployment, which was mainly a persistent problem in the South Bronx. [59] There were cases where tenants set fire to the building they lived in so they may qualify for emergency relocations by city social service agencies to better residences, sometimes being relocated to other parts of the city.

Out of 289 census tracts in the Bronx borough, seven tracts lost more than 97% of their buildings to arson and abandonment between 1970 and 1980 another forty-four tracts had more than 50% of their buildings meet the same fate. By the early 1980s, the Bronx was considered the most blighted urban area in the country, particularly the South Bronx which experienced a loss of 60% of the population and 40% of housing units. However, starting in the 1990s, many of the burned-out and run-down tenements were replaced by new housing units. [59]

Revitalization Edit

Since the late 1980s, significant development has occurred in the Bronx, first stimulated by the city's "Ten-Year Housing Plan" [60] [61] and community members working to rebuild the social, economic and environmental infrastructure by creating affordable housing. Groups affiliated with churches in the South Bronx erected the Nehemiah Homes with about 1,000 units. The grass roots organization Nos Quedamos' endeavor known as Melrose Commons [62] [63] [64] began to rebuild areas in the South Bronx. [65] The IRT White Plains Road Line ( 2 and ​ 5 trains) began to show an increase in riders. Chains such as Marshalls, Staples, and Target opened stores in the Bronx. More bank branches opened in the Bronx as a whole (rising from 106 in 1997 to 149 in 2007), although not primarily in poor or minority neighborhoods, while the Bronx still has fewer branches per person than other boroughs. [66] [67] [68] [69]

In 1997, the Bronx was designated an All America City by the National Civic League, acknowledging its comeback from the decline of the mid-century. [70] In 2006, The New York Times reported that "construction cranes have become the borough's new visual metaphor, replacing the window decals of the 1980s in which pictures of potted plants and drawn curtains were placed in the windows of abandoned buildings." [71] The borough has experienced substantial new building construction since 2002. Between 2002 and June 2007, 33,687 new units of housing were built or were under way and $4.8 billion has been invested in new housing. In the first six months of 2007 alone total investment in new residential development was $965 million and 5,187 residential units were scheduled to be completed. Much of the new development is springing up in formerly vacant lots across the South Bronx. [72]

In addition came a revitalization of the existing housing market in areas such as Hunts Point, the Lower Concourse, and the neighborhoods surrounding the Third Avenue Bridge as people buy apartments and renovate them. [73] Several boutique and chain hotels opened in the 2010s in the South Bronx. [74]

New developments are underway. The Bronx General Post Office [75] [76] on the corner of the Grand Concourse and East 149th Street is being converted into a market place, boutiques, restaurants and office space with a USPS concession. [77] The Kingsbridge Armory, often cited as the largest armory in the world, is scheduled for redevelopment as the Kingsbridge National Ice Center. [78]

Under consideration for future development is the construction of a platform over the New York City Subway's Concourse Yard adjacent to Lehman College. The construction would permit approximately 2,000,000 square feet (190,000 m 2 ) of development and would cost US$350–500 million . [79]

Location and physical features Edit

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, Bronx County has a total area of 57 square miles (150 km 2 ), of which 42 square miles (110 km 2 ) is land and 15 square miles (39 km 2 ) (27%) is water. [81]

The Bronx is New York City's northernmost borough, New York State's southernmost mainland county and the only part of New York City that is almost entirely situated on the North American mainland. [82] Its bedrock is primarily Fordham gneiss, a high-grade heavily banded metamorphic rock containing significant amounts of pink feldspar. [83] Marble Hill – politically part of Manhattan but now physically attached to the Bronx – is so-called because of the formation of Inwood marble there as well as in Inwood, Manhattan and parts of the Bronx and Westchester County.

The Hudson River separates the Bronx on the west from Alpine, Tenafly and Englewood Cliffs in Bergen County, New Jersey the Harlem River separates it from the island of Manhattan to the southwest the East River separates it from Queens to the southeast and to the east, Long Island Sound separates it from Nassau County in western Long Island. Directly north of the Bronx are (from west to east) the adjoining Westchester County communities of Yonkers, Mount Vernon, Pelham Manor and New Rochelle. (There is also a short southern land boundary with Marble Hill in the Borough of Manhattan, over the filled-in former course of the Spuyten Duyvil Creek. Marble Hill's postal ZIP code, telephonic area codes and fire service, however, are shared with the Bronx and not Manhattan.)

The Bronx River flows south from Westchester County through the borough, emptying into the East River it is the only entirely freshwater river in New York City. [84] A smaller river, the Hutchinson River (named after the religious leader Anne Hutchinson, killed along its banks in 1641), passes through the East Bronx and empties into Eastchester Bay.

The Bronx also includes several small islands in the East River and Long Island Sound, such as City Island and Hart Island. Rikers Island in the East River, home to the large jail complex for the entire city, is also part of the Bronx.

The Bronx's highest elevation at 280 feet (85 m) is in the northwest corner, west of Van Cortlandt Park and in the Chapel Farm area near the Riverdale Country School. [85] The opposite (southeastern) side of the Bronx has four large low peninsulas or "necks" of low-lying land that jut into the waters of the East River and were once salt marsh: Hunt's Point, Clason's Point, Screvin's Neck and Throggs Neck. Further up the coastline, Rodman's Neck lies between Pelham Bay Park in the northeast and City Island. The Bronx's irregular shoreline extends for 75 square miles (194 km 2 ). [86]

Parks and open space Edit

Sample of Bronx open spaces and parks
Acquired Name acres mi 2 hectares
1863 Woodlawn Cemetery 400 0.6 162
1888 Pelham Bay Park 2,764 4.3 1,119
Van Cortlandt Park 1,146 1.8 464
Bronx Park 718 1.1 291
Crotona Park 128 0.2 52
St. Mary's Park 35 0.05 14
1890 Jerome Park Reservoir 94 0.15 38
1897 St. James Park 11 0.02 4.6
1899 Macombs Dam Park † 28 0.04 12
1909 Henry Hudson Park 9 0.01 4
1937 Ferry Point Park 414 0.65 168
Soundview Park 196 0.31 79
1962 Wave Hill 21 0.03 8.5
Land area of the Bronx in 2000 26,897 42.0 10,885
Water area 9,855 15.4 3,988
Total area [81] 36,752 57.4 14,873
closed in 2007 to build a new park & Yankee Stadium [87]
Main source: New York City Department of Parks & Recreation

Although Bronx County was the third most densely populated county in the United States as of 2006 (after Manhattan and Brooklyn), [4] 7,000 acres (28 km 2 ) of the Bronx—about one-fifth of the Bronx's area, and one-quarter of its land area—is given over to parkland. [7] The vision of a system of major Bronx parks connected by park-like thoroughfares is usually attributed to John Mullaly.

Woodlawn Cemetery, one of the largest cemeteries in New York City, sits on the western bank of the Bronx River near Yonkers. It opened in 1863, at a time when the Bronx was still considered a rural area.

The northern side of the borough includes the largest park in New York City—Pelham Bay Park, which includes Orchard Beach—and the third-largest, Van Cortlandt Park, which is west of Woodlawn Cemetery and borders Yonkers. [88] Also in the northern Bronx, Wave Hill, the former estate of George W. Perkins—known for a historic house, gardens, changing site-specific art installations and concerts—overlooks the New Jersey Palisades from a promontory on the Hudson in Riverdale. Nearer the borough's center, and along the Bronx River, is Bronx Park its northern end houses the New York Botanical Gardens, which preserve the last patch of the original hemlock forest that once covered the entire county, and its southern end the Bronx Zoo, the largest urban zoological gardens in the United States. [89] Just south of Van Cortlandt Park is the Jerome Park Reservoir, surrounded by 2 miles (3 km) of stone walls and bordering several small parks in the Bedford Park neighborhood the reservoir was built in the 1890s on the site of the former Jerome Park Racetrack. [90] Further south is Crotona Park, home to a 3.3-acre (1.3 ha) lake, 28 species of trees, and a large swimming pool. [91] The land for these parks, and many others, was bought by New York City in 1888, while land was still open and inexpensive, in anticipation of future needs and future pressures for development. [92]

Some of the acquired land was set aside for the Grand Concourse and Pelham Parkway, the first of a series of boulevards and parkways (thoroughfares lined with trees, vegetation and greenery). Later projects included the Bronx River Parkway, which developed a road while restoring the riverbank and reducing pollution, Mosholu Parkway and the Henry Hudson Parkway.

In 2006, a five-year, $220-million program of capital improvements and natural restoration in 70 Bronx parks was begun (financed by water and sewer revenues) as part of an agreement that allowed a water filtration plant under Mosholu Golf Course in Van Cortlandt Park. One major focus is on opening more of the Bronx River's banks and restoring them to a natural state. [93]

Neighborhoods Edit

The number, locations, and boundaries of the Bronx's neighborhoods (many of them sitting on the sites of 19th-century villages) have become unclear with time and successive waves of newcomers. In 2006, Manny Fernandez of The New York Times wrote,

According to a Department of City Planning map of the city's neighborhoods, the Bronx has 49. The map publisher Hagstrom identifies 69. The borough president, Adolfo Carrión Jr., says 61. The Mayor's Community Assistance Unit, in a listing of the borough's community boards, names 68. [94]

Notable Bronx neighborhoods include the South Bronx Little Italy on Arthur Avenue in the Belmont section and Riverdale.

East Bronx Edit

(Bronx Community Districts 9 [south central], 10 [east], 11 [east central] and 12 [north central] ) [95]

East of the Bronx River, the borough is relatively flat and includes four large low peninsulas, or 'necks,' of low-lying land which jut into the waters of the East River and were once saltmarsh: Hunts Point, Clason's Point, Screvin's Neck (Castle Hill Point) and Throgs Neck. The East Bronx has older tenement buildings, low income public housing complexes, and multifamily homes, as well as single family homes. It includes New York City's largest park: Pelham Bay Park along the Westchester-Bronx border.

City Island and Hart Island Edit

City Island is located east of Pelham Bay Park in Long Island Sound and is known for its seafood restaurants and private waterfront homes. [96] City Island's single shopping street, City Island Avenue, is reminiscent of a small New England town. It is connected to Rodman's Neck on the mainland by the City Island Bridge.

East of City Island is Hart Island, which is uninhabited and not open to the public. It once served as a prison and now houses New York City's potter's field for unclaimed bodies. [97]

West Bronx Edit

(Bronx Community Districts 1 to 8, progressing roughly from south to northwest)

The western parts of the Bronx are hillier and are dominated by a series of parallel ridges, running south to north. The West Bronx has older apartment buildings, low income public housing complexes, multifamily homes in its lower income areas as well as larger single family homes in more affluent areas such as Riverdale and Fieldston. [98] It includes New York City's third-largest park: Van Cortlandt Park along the Westchester-Bronx border. The Grand Concourse, a wide boulevard, runs through it, north to south.

Northwestern Bronx Edit

(Bronx Community Districts 7 [between the Bronx and Harlem Rivers] and 8 [facing the Hudson River] – plus part of Board 12)

Neighborhoods include: Fordham-Bedford, Bedford Park, Norwood, Kingsbridge Heights (Community District 7), Kingsbridge, Riverdale (Community District 8), and Woodlawn Heights (Community District 12). (Marble Hill, Manhattan is now connected by land to the Bronx rather than Manhattan and is served by Bronx Community District 8.)

South Bronx Edit

(Bronx Community Districts 1 to 6 plus part of CD 7—progressing northwards, CDs 2, 3 and 6 border the Bronx River from its mouth to Bronx Park, while 1, 4, 5 and 7 face Manhattan across the Harlem River)

Like other neighborhoods in New York City, the South Bronx has no official boundaries. The name has been used to represent poverty in the Bronx and is applied to progressively more northern places so that by the 2000s, Fordham Road was often used as a northern limit. The Bronx River more consistently forms an eastern boundary. The South Bronx has many high-density apartment buildings, low income public housing complexes, and multi-unit homes. The South Bronx is home to the Bronx County Courthouse, Borough Hall, and other government buildings, as well as Yankee Stadium. The Cross Bronx Expressway bisects it, east to west. The South Bronx has some of the poorest neighborhoods in the country, as well as very high crime areas.

Adjacent counties Edit

Historical population
Census Pop.
17901,781
18001,755 −1.5%
18102,267 29.2%
18202,782 22.7%
18303,023 8.7%
18405,346 76.8%
18508,032 50.2%
186023,593 193.7%
187037,393 58.5%
188051,980 39.0%
189088,908 71.0%
1900200,507 125.5%
1910430,980 114.9%
1920732,016 69.8%
19301,265,258 72.8%
19401,394,711 10.2%
19501,451,277 4.1%
19601,424,815 −1.8%
19701,471,701 3.3%
19801,168,972 −20.6%
19901,203,789 3.0%
20001,332,650 10.7%
20101,385,108 3.9%
2019 (est.)1,418,207 [1] 2.4%
Sources: 1790–1990 [100]

Race, ethnicity, language, and immigration Edit

2018 estimates Edit

Race 2018 [104] 2010 [105] 1990 [106] 1970 [106] 1950 [106]
White 44.9% 27.9% 35.7% 73.4% 93.1%
—Non-Hispanic 9.1% 10.9% 22.6% N/A N/A
Black or African American 43.6% 36.5% 37.3% 24.3% 6.7%
Hispanic or Latino (of any race) 56.4% 53.5% 43.5% N/A N/A
Asian 4.5% 3.6% 3% 0.5% 0.1%

The Census Bureau considers the Bronx to be the most diverse area in the country. There is an 89.7 percent chance that any two residents, chosen at random, would be of different race or ethnicity. [107] The borough's most populous racial group, white, declined from 99.3% in 1920 to 44.9% in 2018. [106]

The Bronx contains 532,487 housing units, with a median value of $371,800, and with an owner-occupancy rate of 19.7%, the lowest of the five boroughs. There are 495,356 households, with 2.85 persons per household. 59.3% of residents speak a language besides English at home, the highest rate of the five boroughs.

In the Bronx, the population is 7.2% under 5, 17.6% 6-18, 62.4% 19–64, and 12.8% over 65. 52.9% of the population is female. 35.3% of residents are foreign born.

The per capita income is $19,721, while the median household income is $36,593, both being the lowest of the five boroughs. 27.9% of residents live below the poverty line, the highest of the five boroughs.

2010 Census Edit

According to the 2010 Census, 53.5% of Bronx's population was of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin (they may be of any race) 30.1% non-Hispanic Black or African American, 10.9% of the population was non-Hispanic White, 3.4% non-Hispanic Asian, 0.6% from some other race (non-Hispanic) and 1.2% of two or more races (non-Hispanic).

As of 2010, 46.29% (584,463) of Bronx residents aged five and older spoke Spanish at home, while 44.02% (555,767) spoke English, 2.48% (31,361) African languages, 0.91% (11,455) French, 0.90% (11,355) Italian, 0.87% (10,946) various Indic languages, 0.70% (8,836) other Indo-European languages, and Chinese was spoken at home by 0.50% (6,610) of the population over the age of five. In total, 55.98% (706,783) of the Bronx's population age five and older spoke a language at home other than English. [108] A Garifuna-speaking community from Honduras and Guatemala also makes the Bronx its home. [109]

2009 Community Survey Edit

According to the 2009 American Community Survey, White Americans of both Hispanic and non-Hispanic origin represented over one-fifth (22.9%) of the Bronx's population. However, non-Hispanic whites formed under one-eighth (12.1%) of the population, down from 34.4% in 1980. [110] Out of all five boroughs, the Bronx has the lowest number and percentage of white residents. 320,640 whites called the Bronx home, of which 168,570 were non-Hispanic whites. The majority of the non-Hispanic European American population is of Italian and Irish descent. People of Italian descent numbered over 55,000 individuals and made up 3.9% of the population. People of Irish descent numbered over 43,500 individuals and made up 3.1% of the population. German Americans and Polish Americans made up 1.4% and 0.8% of the population respectively.

The Bronx is the only New York City borough with a Hispanic majority, [111] many of whom are Puerto Ricans and Dominicans. [112] At the 2009 American Community Survey, Black Americans made the second largest group in the Bronx after Hispanics and Latinos. Black people of both Hispanic and non-Hispanic origin represented over one-third (35.4%) of the Bronx's population. Black people of non-Hispanic origin made up 30.8% of the population. Over 495,200 Black people resided in the borough, of which 430,600 were non-Hispanic Black people. Over 61,000 people identified themselves as "Sub-Saharan African" in the survey, making up 4.4% of the population. [ citation needed ]

Native Americans are a very small minority in the borough. Only some 5,560 individuals (out of the borough's 1.4 million people) are Native American, which is equal to just 0.4% of the population. In addition, roughly 2,500 people are Native Americans of non-Hispanic origin. [ citation needed ]

In 2009, Hispanic and Latino Americans represented 52.0% of the Bronx's population. Puerto Ricans represented 23.2% of the borough's population. Over 72,500 Mexicans lived in the Bronx, and they formed 5.2% of the population. Cubans numbered over 9,640 members and formed 0.7% of the population. In addition, over 319,000 people were of various Hispanic and Latino groups, such as Dominican, Salvadoran, and so on. These groups collectively represented 22.9% of the population. At the 2010 Census, 53.5% of Bronx's population was of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin (they may be of any race). Asian Americans are a small but sizable minority in the borough. Roughly 49,600 Asians make up 3.6% of the population. Roughly 13,600 Indians call the Bronx home, along with 9,800 Chinese, 6,540 Filipinos, 2,260 Vietnamese, 2,010 Koreans, and 1,100 Japanese. [ citation needed ]

Multiracial Americans are also a sizable minority in the Bronx. People of multiracial heritage number over 41,800 individuals and represent 3.0% of the population. People of mixed Caucasian and African American heritage number over 6,850 members and form 0.5% of the population. People of mixed Caucasian and Native American heritage number over 2,450 members and form 0.2% of the population. People of mixed Caucasian and Asian heritage number over 880 members and form 0.1% of the population. People of mixed African American and Native American heritage number over 1,220 members and form 0.1% of the population. [ citation needed ]

Older estimates Edit

The Census of 1930 counted only 1.0% (12,930) of the Bronx's population as Negro (while making no distinct counts of Hispanic or Spanish-surname residents). [113]

Foreign or overseas birthplaces of Bronx residents, 1930 and 2000
1930 United States Census [113] 2000 United States Census [114]
Total population of the Bronx 1,265,258 Total population of the Bronx 1,332,650
All born abroad or overseas 524,410 39.4%
Puerto Rico 126,649 9.5%
Foreign-born Whites 477,342 37.7% All foreign-born 385,827 29.0%
White persons born in Russia 135,210 10.7% Dominican Republic 124,032 9.3%
White persons born in Italy 67,732 5.4% Jamaica 51,120 3.8%
White persons born in Poland 55,969 4.4% Mexico 20,962 1.6%
White persons born in Germany 43,349 3.4% Guyana 14,868 1.1%
White persons born in the Irish Free State † 34,538 2.7% Ecuador 14,800 1.1%
Other foreign birthplaces of Whites 140,544 11.1% Other foreign birthplaces 160,045 12.0%
† now the Republic of Ireland ‡ beyond the 50 states & District of Columbia

Population and housing Edit

At the 2010 Census, there were, 1,385,108 people living in Bronx, a 3.9% increase since 2000. As of the United States Census [115] of 2000, there were 1,332,650 people, 463,212 households, and 314,984 families residing in the borough. The population density was 31,709.3 inhabitants per square mile (12,242.2/km 2 ). There were 490,659 housing units at an average density of 11,674.8 per square mile (4,507.4/km 2 ). [115] Census estimates place total population of Bronx county at 1,392,002 as of 2012. [116]

There were 463,212 households, out of which 38.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 31.4% were married couples living together, 30.4% had a female householder with no husband present, and 32.0% were non-families. 27.4% of all households were made up of individuals, and 9.4% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.78 and the average family size was 3.37. [115]

The age distribution of the population in the Bronx was as follows: 29.8% under the age of 18, 10.6% from 18 to 24, 30.7% from 25 to 44, 18.8% from 45 to 64, and 10.1% 65 years of age or older. The median age was 31 years. For every 100 females, there were 87.0 males. [115]

Individual and household income Edit

The 1999 median income for a household in the borough was $27,611, and the median income for a family was $30,682. Males had a median income of $31,178 versus $29,429 for females. The per capita income for the borough was $13,959. About 28.0% of families and 30.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 41.5% of those under age 18 and 21.3% of those age 65 or over.

From 2015 Census data, the median income for a household was (in 2015 dollars) $34,299. Per capita income in past 12 months (in 2015 dollars): $18,456 with persons in poverty at 30.3%. Per the 2016 Census data, the median income for a household was $35,302. Per capita income was cited at $18,896. [117]

Author Edgar Allan Poe spent the last years of his life (1846 to 1849) in the Bronx at Poe Cottage, now located at Kingsbridge Road and the Grand Concourse. A small wooden farmhouse built around 1812, the cottage once commanded unobstructed vistas over the rolling Bronx hills to the shores of Long Island. [120] Poe moved there to get away from the Manhattan city air and crowding in hope that the then rural area would be beneficial for his wife's tuberculosis. It was in the Bronx that Poe wrote one of his most famous works, Annabel Lee. [121]

More than a century later, the Bronx would evolve from a hot bed of Latin jazz to an incubator of hip hop as documented in the award-winning documentary, produced by City Lore and broadcast on PBS in 2006, "From Mambo to Hip Hop: A South Bronx Tale." [122] Hip Hop first emerged in the South Bronx in the early 1970s. The New York Times has identified 1520 Sedgwick Avenue "an otherwise unremarkable high-rise just north of the Cross Bronx Expressway and hard along the Major Deegan Expressway" as a starting point, where DJ Kool Herc presided over parties in the community room. [123] [124] The 2016 Netflix series The Get Down is based on the development of hip hop in 1977 in the South Bronx. [125] Ten years earlier, the Bronx Opera had been founded.

Founding of hip-hop Edit

On August 11, 1973, DJ Kool Herc was a D.J. and M.C. at a party in the recreation room of 1520 Sedgwick Avenue in the Bronx adjacent to the Cross Bronx Expressway. [126] While it was not the actual "Birthplace of Hip Hop" – the genre developed slowly in several places in the 1970s – it was verified to be the place where one of the pivotal and formative events occurred. [126] Specifically:

[Cool Herc] extended an instrumental beat (mixing or scratching) to let people dance longer (B-boying) and began MC'ing (rapping) during the extended breakdancing. . [This] helped lay the foundation for a cultural revolution.

Beginning with the advent of beat match DJing, in which Bronx disc jockeys including Grandmaster Flash, Afrika Bambaataa and DJ Kool Herc extended the breaks of funk records, a major new musical genre emerged that sought to isolate the percussion breaks of hit funk, disco and soul songs. As hip hop's popularity grew, performers began speaking ("rapping") in sync with the beats, and became known as MCs or emcees. The Herculoids, made up of Herc, Coke La Rock, and Clark Kent, [a] were the earliest to gain major fame. The Bronx is referred to in hip-hop slang as "The Boogie Down Bronx", or just "The Boogie Down". This was hip-hop pioneer KRS-One's inspiration for his group BDP, or Boogie Down Productions, which included DJ Scott La Rock. Newer hip hop artists from the Bronx include Big Pun, Lord Tariq and Peter Gunz, Camp Lo, Swizz Beatz, Drag-On, Fat Joe, Terror Squad and Cory Gunz. [127]

Hush Hip Hop Tours , a tour company founded in 2002 by local licensed sightseeing tour guide Debra Harris, [128] has established a sightseeing tour of the Bronx showcasing the locations that helped shape hip hop culture, and features some of the pioneers of hip hop as tour guides. The Bronx's recognition as an important center of African-American culture has led Fordham University to establish the Bronx African-American History Project (BAAHP). [129]

Sports Edit

The Bronx is the home of the New York Yankees, nicknamed "the Bronx Bombers", of Major League Baseball. The original Yankee Stadium opened in 1923 on 161st Street and River Avenue, a year that saw the Yankees bring home their first of 27 World Series Championships. With the famous facade, the short right field porch and Monument Park, Yankee Stadium has been home to many of baseball's greatest players including Babe Ruth, Lou Gehrig, Joe DiMaggio, Whitey Ford, Yogi Berra, Mickey Mantle, Reggie Jackson, Thurman Munson, Don Mattingly, Derek Jeter and Mariano Rivera.

The original stadium was the scene of Lou Gehrig's Farewell Speech in 1939, Don Larsen's perfect game in the 1956 World Series, Roger Maris' record breaking 61st home run in 1961, and Reggie Jackson's 3 home runs to clinch Game 6 of the 1977 World Series. The Stadium was the former home of the New York Giants of the National Football League from 1956 to 1973.

The original Yankee Stadium closed in 2008 to make way for a new Yankee Stadium in which the team started play in 2009. It is located north-northeast of the 1923 Yankee Stadium, on the former site of Macombs Dam Park. The current Yankee Stadium is also the home of New York City FC of Major League Soccer, who began play in 2015.

Off-Off-Broadway Edit

The Bronx is home to several Off-Off-Broadway theaters, many staging new works by immigrant playwrights from Latin America and Africa. The Pregones Theater, which produces Latin American work, opened a new 130-seat theater in 2005 on Walton Avenue in the South Bronx. Some artists from elsewhere in New York City have begun to converge on the area, and housing prices have nearly quadrupled in the area since 2002. However rising prices directly correlate to a housing shortage across the city and the entire metro area.

Arts Edit

The Bronx Academy of Arts and Dance, founded in 1998 by Arthur Aviles and Charles Rice-Gonzalez, provides dance, theatre and art workshops, festivals and performances focusing on contemporary and modern art in relation to race, gender, and sexuality. It is home to the Arthur Aviles Typical Theatre, a contemporary dance company, and the Bronx Dance Coalition. The Academy was formerly in the American Bank Note Company Building before relocating to a venue on the grounds of St. Peter's Episcopal Church. [130]

The Bronx Museum of the Arts, founded in 1971, exhibits 20th century and contemporary art through its central museum space and 11,000 square feet (1,000 m 2 ) of galleries. Many of its exhibitions are on themes of special interest to the Bronx. Its permanent collection features more than 800 works of art, primarily by artists from Africa, Asia and Latin America, including paintings, photographs, prints, drawings, and mixed media. The museum was temporarily closed in 2006 while it underwent an expansion designed by the architectural firm Arquitectonica that would double the museum's size to 33,000 square feet (3,100 m 2 ). [131]

The Bronx has also become home to a peculiar poetic tribute in the form of the "Heinrich Heine Memorial", better known as the Lorelei Fountain. After Heine's German birthplace of Düsseldorf had rejected, allegedly for anti-Semitic motives, a centennial monument to the radical German-Jewish poet (1797–1856), his incensed German-American admirers, including Carl Schurz, started a movement to place one instead in Midtown Manhattan, at Fifth Avenue and 59th Street. However, this intention was thwarted by a combination of ethnic antagonism, aesthetic controversy and political struggles over the institutional control of public art. [132] In 1899, the memorial by Ernst Gustav Herter was placed in Joyce Kilmer Park, near the Yankee Stadium. In 1999, it was moved to 161st Street and the Concourse.

Maritime heritage Edit

The peninsular borough's maritime heritage is acknowledged in several ways. The City Island Historical Society and Nautical Museum occupies a former public school designed by the New York City school system's turn-of-the-last-century master architect C. B. J. Snyder. The state's Maritime College in Fort Schuyler (on the southeastern shore) houses the Maritime Industry Museum. [133] In addition, the Harlem River is reemerging as "Scullers' Row" [134] due in large part to the efforts of the Bronx River Restoration Project, [135] a joint public-private endeavor of the city's parks department. Canoeing and kayaking on the borough's namesake river have been promoted by the Bronx River Alliance. The river is also straddled by the New York Botanical Gardens, its neighbor, the Bronx Zoo, and a little further south, on the west shore, Bronx River Art Center. [136]

Community celebrations Edit

"Bronx Week", traditionally held in May, originated as a one-day celebration. Initiated by Bronx historian Lloyd Ultan and supported by then borough president Robert Abrams, the original one-day program was based on the "Bronx Borough Day" festival which took place in the 1920s. The following year, at the height of the decade's civil unrest, the festival was extended to a one-week event. In the 1980s the key event, the "Bronx Ball", was launched. The week includes the Bronx Week Parade as well as inductions into the "Bronx Walk of Fame." [137]

Various Bronx neighborhoods conduct their own community celebrations. The Arthur Avenue "Little Italy" neighborhood conducts an annual Autumn Ferragosto Festival that celebrates Italian culture. [138] Hunts Point hosts an annual "Fish Parade and Summer Festival" at the start of summer. [139] Edgewater Park hosts an annual "Ragamuffin" children's walk in November. [140] There are several events to honor the borough's veterans. [141] Albanian Independence Day is also observed. [142]

There are also parades to celebrate Dominican, Italian, and Irish heritage. [143] [144] [145]

Press and broadcasting Edit

The Bronx is home to several local newspapers and radio and television studios.

Newspapers Edit

The Bronx has several local newspapers, including The Bronx News, [146] Parkchester News, City News, The Norwood News, The Riverdale Press, Riverdale Review, The Bronx Times Reporter, Inner City Press [147] (which now has more of a focus on national issues) and Co-op City Times. Four non-profit news outlets, Norwood News, Mount Hope Monitor, Mott Haven Herald and The Hunts Point Express serve the borough's poorer communities. The editor and co-publisher of The Riverdale Press, Bernard Stein, won the Pulitzer Prize for Editorial Writing for his editorials about Bronx and New York City issues in 1998. (Stein graduated from the Bronx High School of Science in 1959.)

The Bronx once had its own daily newspaper, The Bronx Home News, which started publishing on January 20, 1907, and merged into the New York Post in 1948. It became a special section of the Post, sold only in the Bronx, and eventually disappeared from view.

Radio and television Edit

One of New York City's major non-commercial radio broadcasters is WFUV, a National Public Radio-affiliated 50,000-watt station broadcasting from Fordham University's Rose Hill campus in the Bronx. The radio station's antenna was relocated to the top an apartment building owned by Montefiore Medical Center, which expanded the reach of the station's signal. [148]

The City of New York has an official television station run by NYC Media and broadcasting from Bronx Community College, and Cablevision operates News 12 The Bronx, both of which feature programming based in the Bronx. Co-op City was the first area in the Bronx, and the first in New York beyond Manhattan, to have its own cable television provider. The local public-access television station BronxNet originates from Herbert H. Lehman College, the borough's only four year CUNY school, and provides government-access television (GATV) public affairs programming in addition to programming produced by Bronx residents. [149]

Gangs Edit

The Bronx is the home of many gangs, including:

    – formed around 1990, it primarily targets high school students and second-generation immigrants to join their gang, and make most of their money from robberies and drug deals. [150] – also formed around 1990, a spin-off of Dominicans Don't Play, mostly involved with drug, sex, and weapons trafficking [151][152] – a nationwide gang whose Bronx chapter began in 1986, involved with gun and drug trafficking, extortion, credit card fraud, and auto theft as their sources of income [150] – a gang that was started in 1979 in Puerto Rico. The organization began as a prison gang which gave members protection while serving their prison sentences. It eventually transformed into a drug trafficking gang. [150]
  • St. James Boys [153]
  • 194 Crew – a drug trafficking gang [154] [better source needed] – made up of first- and second-generation Mexican-Americans, mainly involved in small-scale crime and gang warfare [155] [better source needed]

Shopping malls and markets in the Bronx include:

Shopping districts Edit

Prominent shopping areas in the Bronx include Fordham Road, Bay Plaza in Co-op City, The Hub, the Riverdale/Kingsbridge shopping center, and Bruckner Boulevard. Shops are also concentrated on streets aligned underneath elevated railroad lines, including Westchester Avenue, White Plains Road, Jerome Avenue, Southern Boulevard, and Broadway. The Bronx Terminal Market contains several big-box stores, which opened in 2009 south of Yankee Stadium.

There are three primary shopping centers in the Bronx: The Hub, Gateway Center and Southern Boulevard. The Hub–Third Avenue Business Improvement District (B.I.D.), in The Hub, is the retail heart of the South Bronx, located where four roads converge: East 149th Street, Willis, Melrose and Third Avenues. [156] It is primarily located inside the neighborhood of Melrose but also lines the northern border of Mott Haven. [157] The Hub has been called "the Broadway of the Bronx", being likened to the real Broadway in Manhattan and the northwestern Bronx. [158] It is the site of both maximum traffic and architectural density. In configuration, it resembles a miniature Times Square, a spatial "bow-tie" created by the geometry of the street. [159] The Hub is part of Bronx Community Board 1.

The Bronx Terminal Market, in the West Bronx, formerly known as Gateway Center, is a shopping center that encompasses less than one million square feet of retail space, built on a 17 acres (7 ha) site that formerly held a wholesale fruit and vegetable market also named Bronx Terminal Market as well as the former Bronx House of Detention, south of Yankee Stadium. The $500 million shopping center, which was completed in 2009, saw the construction of new buildings and two smaller buildings, one new and the other a renovation of an existing building that was part of the original market. The two main buildings are linked by a six-level garage for 2,600 cars. The center has earned itself a LEED "Silver" designation in its design. [160]

Local government Edit

Since New York City's consolidation in 1898, the Bronx has been governed by the New York City Charter that provides for a "strong" mayor–council system. The centralized New York City government is responsible for public education, correctional institutions, libraries, public safety, recreational facilities, sanitation, water supply, and welfare services in the Bronx.

Borough Presidents of the Bronx
Name Party Term †
Louis F. Haffen Democratic 1898 – Aug. 1909
John F. Murray Democratic Aug. 1909–1910
Cyrus C. Miller Democratic 1910–1914
Douglas Mathewson Republican-
Fusion
1914–1918
Henry Bruckner Democratic 1918–1934
James J. Lyons Democratic 1934–1962
Joseph F. Periconi Republican-
Liberal
1962–1966
Herman Badillo Democratic 1966–1970
Robert Abrams Democratic 1970–1979
Stanley Simon Democratic 1979 – April 1987
Fernando Ferrer Democratic April 1987 – 2002
Adolfo Carrión, Jr. Democratic 2002 – March 2009
Ruben Diaz, Jr. Democratic May 2009 –
† Terms begin and end in January
where the month is not specified.

The office of Borough President was created in the consolidation of 1898 to balance centralization with local authority. Each borough president had a powerful administrative role derived from having a vote on the New York City Board of Estimate, which was responsible for creating and approving the city's budget and proposals for land use. In 1989 the Supreme Court of the United States declared the Board of Estimate unconstitutional on the grounds that Brooklyn, the most populous borough, had no greater effective representation on the Board than Staten Island, the least populous borough, a violation of the Fourteenth Amendment's Equal Protection Clause pursuant to the high court's 1964 "one man, one vote" decision. [161]

Since 1990 the Borough President has acted as an advocate for the borough at the mayoral agencies, the City Council, the New York state government, and corporations.

Until March 1, 2009, the Borough President of the Bronx was Adolfo Carrión Jr., elected as a Democrat in 2001 and 2005 before retiring early to direct the White House Office of Urban Affairs Policy. His successor, Democratic New York State Assembly member Rubén Díaz, Jr., who won a special election on April 21, 2009 by a vote of 86.3% (29,420) on the "Bronx Unity" line to 13.3% (4,646) for the Republican district leader Anthony Ribustello on the "People First" line, [162] [163] became Borough President on May 1.

All of the Bronx's currently elected public officials have first won the nomination of the Democratic Party (in addition to any other endorsements). Local party platforms center on affordable housing, education and economic development. Controversial political issues in the Bronx include environmental issues, the cost of housing, and annexation of parkland for new Yankee Stadium. [ citation needed ]

Since its separation from New York County on January 1, 1914, the Bronx, has had, like each of the other 61 counties of New York State, its own criminal court system [6] and District Attorney, the chief public prosecutor who is directly elected by popular vote. Darcel D. Clark has been the Bronx County District Attorney since 2016. Her predecessor was Robert T. Johnson, was the District Attorney from 1989 to 2015. He was the first African-American District Attorney in New York State. [164]

Eight members of the New York City Council represent districts wholly within the Bronx (11–18), while a ninth represents a Manhattan district (8) that also includes a small area of the Bronx. One of those members, Joel Rivera (District 15), has been the council's Majority Leader since 2002. In 2008, all of them were Democrats.

The Bronx also has twelve Community Boards, appointed bodies that field complaints and advise on land use and municipal facilities and services for local residents, businesses and institutions. (They are listed at Bronx Community Boards).

Representatives in the U.S. Congress Edit

Candidates winning non-judicial elections in the Bronx since 2004
Year Office Winner of the Bronx
(failed to win overall contest)
Bronx
%
Over-
all %
Borough-wide votes
2004 U.S. President & V.P. John Kerry–John Edwards, D-WF 81.8% 48.3%
2005 Mayor of New York Fernando Ferrer, D 59.8% 39.0%
Public Advocate Betsy Gotbaum, D 93.8% 90.0%
City Comptroller William C. Thompson, Jr., D-WF 95.5% 92.6%
Borough President Adolfo Carrión, Jr., D 83.8%
2006 U.S. Senator Hillary Clinton, D-WF-Independence 89.5% 67.0%
Governor & Lt Gov. Eliot Spitzer–David Paterson, D-WF-Indpce 88.8% 69.0%
State Comptroller Alan G. Hevesi, D-WF-Independence 84.5% 56.8%
NY Attorney-General Andrew M. Cuomo, D-Working Families 82.6% 58.3%
2007 Bronx Dist. Attorney Robert T. Johnson, D-R-Conservative 100–%
2008 Democratic Pres. Hillary Clinton 61.2% 48.0%
Republican Pres. John McCain 54.4% 46.6%
U.S. President & V.P. Barack Obama–Joe Biden, D-WF 87.8% 52.9%
2009 Borough President Ruben Diaz, Jr., Bronx Unity 86.3%
Individual legislative districts
2005 New York City Council
Council District 8 Melissa Mark Viverito, D-WF 100.% 100.%
Council District 11 G. Oliver Koppell, D 81.1%
Council District 12 Larry B. Seabrook, D 87.2%
Council District 13 James Vacca, D 64.4%
Council District 14 María Baez, D 94.7%
Council District 15 Joel Rivera, D (majority leader) 91.0%
Council District 16 Helen D. Foster, D-R-Working Families 98.6%
Council District 17 María Del Carmen Arroyo, D-Indep'ce 98.3%
Council District 18 Annabel Palma, D-WF 89.1%
2006 U.S. House of Representatives
Cong. District 7 Joseph Crowley, D-WF 84.9% 84.0%
Cong. District 16 José E. Serrano, D-WF 95.3%
Cong. District 17 Eliot L. Engel, D-WF 89.3% 76.4%
New York State Senate
Senate District 28 José M. Serrano, D-WF 100.% 100.%
Senate District 31 Eric T. Schneiderman, D-WF 88.8% 92.3%
Senate District 32 Rubén Díaz, D 92.5%
Senate District 33 Efraín González, Jr., D 96.9%
Senate District 34 Jeffrey D. Klein, D-WF 64.8% 61.2%
Senate District 36 Ruth H. Thompson, D-WF 95.4% 95.4%
New York State Assembly
Assembly District 76 Peter M. Rivera, D-WF 91.8%
Assembly District 77 Aurelia Greene, D-WF 94.9%
Assembly District 78 José Rivera, D 89.7%
Assembly District 79 Michael A. Benjamin, D 95.1%
Assembly District 80 Naomi Rivera, D 74.6%
Assembly District 81 Jeffrey Dinowitz, D-WF 95.1%
Assembly District 82 Michael R. Benedetto, D-WF 81.4%
Assembly District 83 Carl E. Heastie, D-WF 94.1%
Assembly District 84 Carmen E. Arroyo, D 92.7%
Assembly District 85 Rubén Díaz, Jr., D 94.8%
Assembly District 86 Luís M. Diaz, D 94.6%
D = Democratic Party R = Republican Party
WF = Working Families Party Indpce = Independence Party of New York

In 2018, four Democrats represented all of the Bronx in the United States House of Representatives. [165]

    (first elected in 2016) represents New York's 13th congressional district, which includes the northwest Bronx neighborhoods of Norwood, Bedford Park and Kingsbridge, as well as upper Manhattan. [165] (first elected in 2018) represents New York's 14th congressional district, which includes the East Bronx neighborhoods of Co-op City, Pelham Bay, Morris Park, Pelham Parkway, Parkchester, Castle Hill and Throgs Neck, as well as the Rikers Island jail complex and parts of northwest Queens. [165] (first elected in November 2020) represents New York's 15th congressional district, which includes neighborhoods in the South Bronx. [165] (first elected in 2020) represents New York's 16th congressional district which includes the northwest Bronx neighborhoods of Bedford Park, Spuyten Duyvil, and Riverdale as well as parts of Westchester and Rockland counties. [165]

National Journal's neutral rating system placed all of their voting records in 2005 and 2006 somewhere between very liberal and extremely liberal. [14] [15]

11 out of 150 members of the New York State Assembly (the lower house of the state legislature) represent districts wholly within the Bronx. Six State Senators out of 62 represent Bronx districts, half of them wholly within the county, and half straddling other counties. All these legislators are Democrats who won between 65% and 100% of their districts' vote in 2006. [166]

Votes for other offices Edit

In the 2004 presidential election, Senator John Kerry received 81.8% of the vote in the Bronx (79.8% on the Democratic line plus 2% on the Working Families Party's line) while President George W. Bush received 16.3% (15.5% Republican plus 0.85% Conservative).

In the 2008 presidential election, Democrat Barack Obama improved on Kerry's showing, and took 88.7% of the vote in the Bronx to Republican John McCain's 10.9%.

In 2005, the Democratic former Bronx Borough President Fernando Ferrer won 59.8% of the borough's vote against 38.8% (35.3% Republican, 3.5% Independence Party) for Mayor Michael Bloomberg, who carried every other borough in his winning campaign for re-election.

In 2006, successfully reelected Senator Hillary Clinton won 89.5% of the Bronx's vote (82.8% Dem. + 4.1% Working Families + 2.6% Independence) against Yonkers ex-Mayor John Spencer's 9.6% (8.2% Republican + 1.4% Cons.), while Eliot Spitzer won 88.8% of the Borough's vote (82.1% Dem. + 4.1% Working Families + 2.5% Independence Party) in winning the Governorship against John Faso, who received 9.7% of the Bronx's vote (8.2% Republican + 1.5% Cons.) [167]

In the Presidential primary elections of February 5, 2008, Sen. Clinton won 61.2% of the Bronx's 148,636 Democratic votes against 37.8% for Barack Obama and 1.0% for the other four candidates combined (John Edwards, Dennis Kucinich, Bill Richardson and Joe Biden). On the same day, John McCain won 54.4% of the borough's 5,643 Republican votes, Mitt Romney 20.8%, Mike Huckabee 8.2%, Ron Paul 7.4%, Rudy Giuliani 5.6%, and the other candidates (Fred Thompson, Duncan Hunter and Alan Keyes) 3.6% between them. [168]

After becoming a separate county in 1914, the Bronx has supported only two Republican presidential candidates. It voted heavily for the winning Republican Warren G. Harding in 1920, but much more narrowly on a split vote for his victorious Republican successor Calvin Coolidge in 1924 (Coolidge 79,562 John W. Davis, Dem., 72,834 Robert La Follette, 62,202 equally divided between the Progressive and Socialist lines).

Since then, the Bronx has always supported the Democratic Party's nominee for president, starting with a vote of 2–1 for the unsuccessful Al Smith in 1928, followed by four 2–1 votes for the successful Franklin D. Roosevelt. (Both had been Governors of New York, but Republican former Gov. Thomas E. Dewey won only 28% of the Bronx's vote in 1948 against 55% for Pres. Harry Truman, the winning Democrat, and 17% for Henry A. Wallace of the Progressives. It was only 32 years earlier, by contrast, that another Republican former Governor who narrowly lost the Presidency, Charles Evans Hughes, had won 42.6% of the Bronx's 1916 vote against Democratic President Woodrow Wilson's 49.8% and Socialist candidate Allan Benson's 7.3%.) [169]

The Bronx has often shown striking differences from other boroughs in elections for Mayor. The only Republican to carry the Bronx since 1914 was Fiorello La Guardia in 1933, 1937 and 1941 (and in the latter two elections, only because his 30% to 32% vote on the American Labor Party line was added to 22% to 23% as a Republican). [170] The Bronx was thus the only borough not carried by the successful Republican re-election campaigns of Mayors Rudolph Giuliani in 1997 and Michael Bloomberg in 2005. The anti-war Socialist campaign of Morris Hillquit in the 1917 mayoral election won over 31% of the Bronx's vote, putting him second and well ahead of the 20% won by the incumbent pro-war Fusion Mayor John P. Mitchel, who came in second (ahead of Hillquit) everywhere else and outpolled Hillquit citywide by 23.2% to 21.7%. [171]

  • Republican and Democratic columns for presidential elections also include their candidates' votes on other lines, such as the New York State Right to Life Party and the Working Families Party.
  • For details of votes and parties in a particular election, click the year or see New York City mayoral elections.

Education in the Bronx is provided by a large number of public and private institutions, many of which draw students who live beyond the Bronx. The New York City Department of Education manages public noncharter schools in the borough. In 2000, public schools enrolled nearly 280,000 of the Bronx's residents over 3 years old (out of 333,100 enrolled in all pre-college schools). [174] There are also several public charter schools. Private schools range from élite independent schools to religiously affiliated schools run by the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of New York and Jewish organizations.

A small portion of land that is between Pelham and Pelham Bay Park, with a total of 35 houses, is a part of the Bronx, but is cut off from the rest of the borough due to the way the county boundaries were established the New York City government pays for the residents' children to go to Pelham Union Free School District schools, including Pelham Memorial High School, since that is more cost effective than sending school buses to take the students to New York City schools. This arrangement has been in place since 1948. [175]

Educational attainment Edit

In 2000, according to the United States Census, out of the nearly 800,000 people in the Bronx who were then at least 25 years old, 62.3% had graduated from high school and 14.6% held a bachelor's or higher college degree. These percentages were lower than those for New York's other boroughs, which ranged from 68.8% (Brooklyn) to 82.6% (Staten Island) for high school graduates over 24, and from 21.8% (Brooklyn) to 49.4% (Manhattan) for college graduates. (The respective state and national percentages were [NY] 79.1% & 27.4% and [US] 80.4% & 24.4%.) [176]

High schools Edit

In the 2000 Census, 79,240 of the nearly 95,000 Bronx residents enrolled in high school attended public schools. [174]

Many public high schools are located in the borough including the elite Bronx High School of Science, Celia Cruz Bronx High School of Music, DeWitt Clinton High School, High School for Violin and Dance, Bronx Leadership Academy 2, Bronx International High School, the School for Excellence, the Morris Academy for Collaborative Study, Wings Academy for young adults, The Bronx School for Law, Government and Justice, Validus Preparatory Academy, The Eagle Academy For Young Men, Bronx Expeditionary Learning High School, Bronx Academy of Letters, Herbert H. Lehman High School and High School of American Studies. The Bronx is also home to three of New York City's most prestigious private, secular schools: Fieldston, Horace Mann, and Riverdale Country School.

The SAR Academy and SAR High School are Modern Orthodox Jewish Yeshiva coeducational day schools in Riverdale, with roots in Manhattan's Lower East Side.

In the 1990s, New York City began closing the large, public high schools in the Bronx and replacing them with small high schools. Among the reasons cited for the changes were poor graduation rates and concerns about safety. Schools that have been closed or reduced in size include John F. Kennedy, James Monroe, Taft, Theodore Roosevelt, Adlai Stevenson, Evander Childs, Christopher Columbus, Morris, Walton, and South Bronx High Schools.

Colleges and universities Edit

In 2000, 49,442 (57.5%) of the 86,014 Bronx residents seeking college, graduate or professional degrees attended public institutions. [174]

Several colleges and universities are located in the Bronx.

Fordham University was founded as St. John's College in 1841 by the Diocese of New York as the first Catholic institution of higher education in the northeast. It is now officially an independent institution, but strongly embraces its Jesuit heritage. The 85-acre (340,000 m 2 ) Bronx campus, known as Rose Hill, is the main campus of the university, and is among the largest within the city (other Fordham campuses are located in Manhattan and Westchester County). [89]

Three campuses of the City University of New York are in the Bronx: Hostos Community College, Bronx Community College (occupying the former University Heights Campus of New York University) [177] and Herbert H. Lehman College (formerly the uptown campus of Hunter College), which offers both undergraduate and graduate degrees.

The College of Mount Saint Vincent is a Catholic liberal arts college in Riverdale under the direction of the Sisters of Charity of New York. Founded in 1847 as a school for girls, the academy became a degree-granting college in 1911 and began admitting men in 1974. The school serves 1,600 students. Its campus is also home to the Academy for Jewish Religion, a transdenominational rabbinical and cantorial school.

Manhattan College is a Catholic college in Riverdale which offers undergraduate programs in the arts, business, education, engineering, and science. It also offers graduate programs in education and engineering.

The coeducational and non-sectarian Mercy College—with its main campus in Dobbs Ferry—has a Bronx campus, located near Westchester Square.

The State University of New York Maritime College in Fort Schuyler (Throggs Neck)—at the far southeastern tip of the Bronx—is the national leader in maritime education and houses the Maritime Industry Museum. (Directly across Long Island Sound is Kings Point, Long Island, home of the United States Merchant Marine Academy and the American Merchant Marine Museum.) As of 2017, graduates from the university earned an average annual salary of $144,000, the highest of any university graduates in the United States. [178]

In addition, the private, proprietary Monroe College, focused on preparation for business and the professions, started in the Bronx in 1933 and now has a campus in New Rochelle (Westchester County) as well the Bronx's Fordham neighborhood. [179]

Roads and streets Edit

Surface streets Edit

The Bronx street grid is irregular. Like the northernmost part of upper Manhattan, the West Bronx's hilly terrain leaves a relatively free-style street grid. Much of the West Bronx's street numbering carries over from upper Manhattan, but does not match it exactly East 132nd Street is the lowest numbered street in the Bronx. This dates from the mid-19th century when the southwestern area of Westchester County west of the Bronx River, was incorporated into New York City and known as the Northside.

The East Bronx is considerably flatter, and the street layout tends to be more regular. Only the Wakefield neighborhood picks up the street numbering, albeit at a misalignment due to Tremont Avenue's layout. At the same diagonal latitude, West 262nd Street in Riverdale matches East 237th Street in Wakefield.

Three major north–south thoroughfares run between Manhattan and the Bronx: Third Avenue, Park Avenue, and Broadway. Other major north–south roads include the Grand Concourse, Jerome Avenue, Sedgwick Avenue, Webster Avenue, and White Plains Road. Major east-west thoroughfares include Mosholu Parkway, Gun Hill Road, Fordham Road, Pelham Parkway, and Tremont Avenue.

Most east–west streets are prefixed with either East or West, to indicate on which side of Jerome Avenue they lie (continuing the similar system in Manhattan, which uses Fifth Avenue as the dividing line). [180]

The historic Boston Post Road, part of the long pre-revolutionary road connecting Boston with other northeastern cities, runs east–west in some places, and sometimes northeast–southwest.

Mosholu and Pelham Parkways, with Bronx Park between them, Van Cortlandt Park to the west and Pelham Bay Park to the east, are also linked by bridle paths.

As of the 2000 Census, approximately 61.6% of all Bronx households do not have access to a car. Citywide, the percentage of autoless households is 55%. [181]

Highways Edit

Several major limited access highways traverse the Bronx. These include:

Bridges and tunnels Edit

Thirteen bridges and three tunnels connect the Bronx to Manhattan, and three bridges connect the Bronx to Queens. These are, from west to east:

To both Manhattan and Queens: the Robert F. Kennedy Bridge, formerly known as the Triborough Bridge.

Mass transit Edit

The Bronx is served by seven New York City Subway services along six physical lines, with 70 stations in the Bronx: [182]

There are also many MTA Regional Bus Operations bus routes in the Bronx. This includes local and express routes as well as Bee-Line Bus System routes. [183]

Two Metro-North Railroad commuter rail lines (the Harlem Line and the Hudson Line) serve 11 stations in the Bronx. (Marble Hill, between the Spuyten Duyvil and University Heights stations, is actually in the only part of Manhattan connected to the mainland.) In addition, trains serving the New Haven Line stop at Fordham Plaza. As part of Penn Station Access, the 2018 MTA budget funded construction of four new stops along the New Haven Line to serve Hunts Point, Parkchester, Morris Park, and Co-op City. [184]

In 2018, NYC Ferry's Soundview line opened, connecting the Soundview landing in Clason Point Park to three East River locations in Manhattan. The ferry is operated by Hornblower Cruises. [185]

Film and television Edit

Mid-20th century Edit

Mid-20th century movies set in the Bronx portrayed densely settled, working-class, urban culture. Hollywood films such as From This Day Forward (1946), set in Highbridge, occasionally delved into Bronx life. Paddy Chayefsky's Academy Award-winning Marty was the most notable examination of working class Bronx life [186] was also explored by Chayefsky in his 1956 film The Catered Affair, and in the 1993 Robert De Niro/Chazz Palminteri film, A Bronx Tale, Spike Lee's 1999 movie Summer of Sam, centered in an Italian-American Bronx community, 1994's I Like It Like That that takes place in the predominantly Puerto Rican neighborhood of the South Bronx, and Doughboys, the story of two Italian-American brothers in danger of losing their bakery thanks to one brother's gambling debts.

The Bronx's gritty urban life had worked its way into the movies even earlier, with depictions of the "Bronx cheer", a loud flatulent-like sound of disapproval, allegedly first made by New York Yankees fans. The sound can be heard, for example, on the Spike Jones and His City Slickers recording of "Der Fuehrer's Face" (from the 1942 Disney animated film of the same name), repeatedly lambasting Adolf Hitler with: "We'll Heil! (Bronx cheer) Heil! (Bronx cheer) Right in Der Fuehrer's Face!" [187] [188]

Symbolism Edit

Starting in the 1970s, the Bronx often symbolized violence, decay, and urban ruin. The wave of arson in the South Bronx in the 1960s and 1970s inspired the observation that "The Bronx is burning": in 1974 it was the title of both a The New York Times editorial and a BBC documentary film. The line entered the pop-consciousness with Game Two of the 1977 World Series, when a fire broke out near Yankee Stadium as the team was playing the Los Angeles Dodgers. Numerous fires had previously broken out in the Bronx prior to this fire. As the fire was captured on live television, announcer Howard Cosell is wrongly remembered to have said something like, "There it is, ladies and gentlemen: the Bronx is burning". Historians of New York City frequently point to Cosell's remark as an acknowledgement of both the city and the borough's decline. [189] A new feature-length documentary film by Edwin Pagan called Bronx Burning [190] is in production [191] in 2006, chronicling what led up to the numerous arson-for-insurance fraud fires of the 1970s in the borough.

Bronx gang life was depicted in the 1974 novel The Wanderers by Bronx native Richard Price and the 1979 movie of the same name. They are set in the heart of the Bronx, showing apartment life and the then-landmark Krums ice cream parlor. In the 1979 film The Warriors, the eponymous gang go to a meeting in Van Cortlandt Park in the Bronx, and have to fight their way out of the borough and get back to Coney Island in Brooklyn. A Bronx Tale (1993) depicts gang activities in the Belmont "Little Italy" section of the Bronx. The 2005 video game adaptation features levels called Pelham, Tremont, and "Gunhill" (a play off the name Gun Hill Road). This theme lends itself to the title of The Bronx Is Burning, an eight-part ESPN TV mini-series (2007) about the New York Yankees' drive to winning baseball's 1977 World Series. The TV series emphasizes the boisterous nature of the team, led by manager Billy Martin, catcher Thurman Munson and outfielder Reggie Jackson, as well as the malaise of the Bronx and New York City in general during that time, such as the blackout, the city's serious financial woes and near bankruptcy, the arson for insurance payments, and the election of Ed Koch as mayor.

The 1981 film Fort Apache, The Bronx is another film that used the Bronx's gritty image for its storyline. The movie's title is from the nickname for the 41st Police Precinct in the South Bronx which was nicknamed "Fort Apache". Also from 1981 is the horror film Wolfen making use of the rubble of the Bronx as a home for werewolf type creatures. Knights of the South Bronx, a true story of a teacher who worked with disadvantaged children, is another film also set in the Bronx released in 2005. The Bronx was the setting for the 1983 film Fuga dal Bronx, also known as Bronx Warriors 2 and Escape 2000, an Italian B-movie best known for its appearance on the television series Mystery Science Theater 3000. The plot revolves around a sinister construction corporation's plans to depopulate, destroy and redevelop the Bronx, and a band of rebels who are out to expose the corporation's murderous ways and save their homes. The film is memorable for its almost incessant use of the phrase, "Leave the Bronx!" Many of the movie's scenes were filmed in Queens, substituting as the Bronx. Rumble in the Bronx, filmed in Vancouver, was a 1995 Jackie Chan kung-fu film, another which popularized the Bronx to international audiences. Last Bronx, a 1996 Sega game played on the bad reputation of the Bronx to lend its name to an alternate version of post-Japanese bubble Tokyo, where crime and gang warfare is rampant.

Literature Edit

Books Edit

The Bronx has been featured significantly in fiction literature. All of the characters in Herman Wouk's City Boy: The Adventures of Herbie Bookbinder (1948) live in the Bronx, and about half of the action is set there. Kate Simon's Bronx Primitive: Portraits of a Childhood is directly autobiographical, a warm account of a Polish-Jewish girl in an immigrant family growing up before World War II, and living near Arthur Avenue and Tremont Avenue. [192] In Jacob M. Appel's short story, "The Grand Concourse" (2007), [193] a woman who grew up in the iconic Lewis Morris Building returns to the Morrisania neighborhood with her adult daughter. Similarly, in Avery Corman's book The Old Neighborhood (1980), [194] an upper-middle class white protagonist returns to his birth neighborhood (Fordham Road and the Grand Concourse), and learns that even though the folks are poor, Hispanic and African-American, they are good people.

By contrast, Tom Wolfe's Bonfire of the Vanities (1987) [195] portrays a wealthy, white protagonist, Sherman McCoy, getting lost off the Bruckner Expressway in the South Bronx and having an altercation with locals. A substantial piece of the last part of the book is set in the resulting riotous trial at the Bronx County Courthouse. However, times change, and in 2007, The New York Times reported that "the Bronx neighborhoods near the site of Sherman's accident are now dotted with townhouses and apartments." In the same article, the Reverend Al Sharpton (whose fictional analogue in the novel is "Reverend Bacon") asserts that "twenty years later, the cynicism of The Bonfire of the Vanities is as out of style as Tom Wolfe's wardrobe." [196]

Don DeLillo's Underworld (1997) is also set in the Bronx and offers a perspective on the decline of the area from the 1950s onwards. [ citation needed ]

Poetry Edit

In poetry, the Bronx has been immortalized by one of the world's shortest couplets:

Nash repented 33 years after his calumny, penning in 1964 the following prose poem to the Dean of [[Bronx Community College]]: [197]

I can't seem to escape
the sins of my smart-alec youth
Here are my amends.
I wrote those lines, "The Bronx?
No thonx"
I shudder to confess them.
Now I'm an older, wiser man
I cry, "The Bronx?
God bless them!" [71]

In 2016, W. R. Rodriguez published Bronx Trilogy—consisting of the shoe shine parlor poems et al, concrete pastures of the beautiful bronx, and from the banks of brook avenue. The trilogy celebrates Bronx people, places, and events. DeWitt Clinton High School, St. Mary's Park, and Brook Avenue are a few of the schools, parks, and streets Rodriguez uses as subjects for his poems. [198]

Nash's couplet "The Bronx No Thonx" and his subsequent blessing are mentioned in Bronx Accent: A Literary and Pictorial History of the Borough, edited by Llyod Ultan and Barbara Unger and published in 2000. The book, which includes the work of Yiddish poets, offers a selection from Allen Ginsberg's Kaddish, as his Aunt Elanor and his mother, Naomi, lived near Woodlawn Cemetery. Also featured is Ruth Lisa Schecther's poem, "Bronx", which is described as a celebration of the borough's landmarks. There is a selection of works from poets such as Sandra María Esteves, Milton Kessler, Joan Murray, W. R. Rodriguez, Myra Shapiro, Gayl Teller, and Terence Wynch. [199]

"Bronx Migrations" by Michelle M. Tokarczyk is a collection that spans five decades of Tokarczyk's life in the Bronx, from her exodus in 1962 to her return in search of her childhood tenement. [200] [201]

Bronx Memoir Project Edit

Bronx Memoir Project: Vol. 1 is a published anthology by the Bronx Council on the Arts and brought forth through a series of workshops meant to empower Bronx residents and shed the stigma on the Bronx's burning past. [202] The Bronx Memoir Project was created as an ongoing collaboration between the Bronx Council on the Arts and other cultural institutions, including the Bronx Documentary Center, the Bronx Library Center, the (Edgar Allan) Poe Park Visitor Center, Mindbuilders, and other institutions and funded through a grant from the National Endowment for the Arts. [203] [204] The goal was to develop and refine memoir fragments written by people of all walks of life that share a common bond residing within the Bronx. [203]

Songs Edit

  • In Marc Ferris's 5-page, 15-column list of "Songs and Compositions Inspired by New York City" in The Encyclopedia of New York City (1995), [205] only a handful refer to the Bronx most refer to New York City proper, especially Manhattan and Brooklyn. Ferris's extensive but selective 1995 list mentions only four songs referring specifically to the Bronx: "On the Banks of the Bronx" (1919), William LeBaron, Victor Jacobi "Bronx Express" (1922), Henry Creamer and Henry Creamer "The Tremont Avenue Cruisewear Fashion Show" (1973), Jerry Livingston, Mark David "I Love the New York Yankees" (1987), Paula Lindstrom.

Theater Edit

Clifford Odets’s play Awake and Sing is set in 1933 in the Bronx. The play, first produced at the Belasco Theater in 1935, concerns a poor family living in small quarters, the struggles of the controlling parents and the aspirations of their children. [206]

René Marqués The Oxcart (1959), concerns a rural Puerto Rican family who immigrate to the Bronx for a better life. [207]

A Bronx Tale is an autobiographical one-man show written and performed by Chazz Palminteri. It is a coming-of-age story set in the Bronx. It premiered in Los Angeles in the 1980s and then played on Off-Broadway. After a film version involving Palminteri and Robert DeNiro, Palminteri performed his one-man show on Broadway and on tour in 2007. [208]


The Legacy of David Chang’s Ssäm Bar, an NYC Icon Leaving Its East Village Home

Last week, Momofuku announced that the ever-changing Ssäm Bar, once a kimchi-laced, offal-laden, ham-slinging hangout that played a central role in turning the raffish East Village into a citywide restaurant destination, will close and relocate to the slick, bi-level Wayō space in Manhattan’s Seaport District. Patrons who used to stare at an odd John McEnroe poster during dinner will now enjoy panoramic vistas of the East River. In a way, the move reflects the evolution of the Momofuku empire what was once experimental and frayed around the edges is now shiny and corporate.

That’s not so much a damnation as it is a statement of fact. After the Trump-supporting billionaire Stephen Ross took a minority stake in Chang’s empire in late 2016, the New York restaurants have largely expanded into polished luxury developments, including the Shops at Columbus Circle, Hudson Yards, and the Pier 17 mall in the revamped Seaport.

But here’s the surprising part: Even as has Momofuku moved into soulless real estate, the group has managed to keep its creative culinary soul intact, slinging gelatinous raw crab, Korean-Lebanese wrap sandwiches, and buttery imitation crab rolls in places where one might otherwise expect a $70 strip steak. That roughly means that even as Ssäm Bar relocates to a fancier part of town, the likelihood of it devolving into best-hits blandness is low.

If anything, the venue has long acted as the group’s creative core it’s always seemed to change or expand before entering into the middle-aged stasis that many restaurants its age experience. It opened in August 2006 — two years after Noodle Bar’s debut — as a Korean-American Chipotle, with staffers selling burrito-like wraps on an assembly line. And then it morphed into a late night den of freewheeling gastronomic innovation, a global riff on an American brasserie that spawned countless more small plates places.

Ssäm Bar’s influence would grow in the decade-plus that followed. Alongside the Spotted Pig, it paved the way for a stripped-down and affordable-ish style of ambitious gastronomy that contrasted with starchier Midtown establishments.

A bartender at Momofuku Ssäm Bar’s Booker and Dax makes a cocktail Nick Solares

It was home, for a time, to one of the city’s most groundbreaking cocktail bars. It launched Christina Tosi’s neo-nostalgic dessert empire. And it broadened the concept of what constituted quintessential New York food. Ssäm Bar helped popularize Korean preparations like ssäm wraps and tteokbokki rice cakes into America’s culinary mainstream, which was less open-minded than it is today — even if, alas, the American brasserie as a larger construct hasn’t internationalized as much as it could have throughout New York.

There were occasional French-Vietnamese vibes in the early days, but over the years, Ssäm Bar would lean into large, family-style roasts, and pivot towards the foodways of Singapore by 2017. It was a neighborhood institution that never felt institutionalized as it aged, or felt unneighborly as it attracted patrons from across the globe.

In relocating, the true loss isn’t to the larger city — at the very least, the new Ssäm Bar will bring a bit of personality to the new Seaport, a tourist-heavy area that could use an idiosyncratic jolt — but to the East Village, a neighborhood whose own evolution over the decades saw it transform from artsy and accessible to increasingly elite. Ssäm Bar felt like an anchor tenant in slowing that neighborhood’s transition. And now it’ll be another empty storefront in a slice of the city that’ll have no shortage of empty storefronts as the pandemic forces more businesses to close.

Here’s an overview of notable beginnings, reviews, overhauls, and endings in Ssäm Bar’s history in the East Village.

David Chang in 2007 Photo by BILLY FARRELL/Patrick McMullan via Getty Images

August 2006: Ssäm Bar opens with a menu of Korean-American burritos. Workers stuff slow-roasted pork, rice, and kimchi into flour tortillas on a Chipotle-style assembly line. They do not, alas, attract the fervor or crowds for which Momofuku Noodle Bar was famous for at the time.

September 2006: Chefs Chang, Joaquin Baca, and Tien Ho launch a late night program that eventually becomes the heart of the operation. The early menus include smoky Tennessee hams, raw fish plates like uni with whipped tofu, bacon with apple kimchi, spicy braised tripe, a giant bo ssäm pork butt for large parties, and a killer banh mi sandwich. Grilled tteok (rice cakes), ubiquitous at K-Town restaurants but rarely seen elsewhere, become an exercise in unabated eclecticism Chang slathered the chewy nuggets in a spicy Sichuan ragu, effectively creating a Chinese-Italian dish seen through the lens of a Korean staple.

These offerings come to epitomize what Ssäm would become: an after-hours chef’s hangout characterized by small plates and salty, fatty, offal-y, globally-minded flavors. It served loud food in a loud room. It was the modern, international successor to the more European-leaning Blue Ribbon.

Like Noodle Bar, it also had a tough no-substitution policy that seemed to rankle herbivores who preferred to eat their vegetables without a heady slick of lard. It presaged a culinary era that shifted the balance of power away from picky diners to no-nonsense, my-way-or-the-highway chefs. “We do not serve vegetarian-friendly items,” Ssam Bar’s menu famously read. Later, Chang would say in a lengthy GQ profile: “Vegetarians are a pain in the ass as customers. It’s always ‘I want this’ or ‘I don’t want that.’ Jesus Christ, go cook at home.”

The bo ssäm pork butt at Ssäm Bar Momofuku [Official Photo]

January 2007: Ssäm Bar adopts the late night menu during regular dinner hours.

February 2007: New York Times critic Frank Bruni awards the restaurant two stars, praising Chang’s budget gourmet approach to ambitious eating, while criticizing the backless stools, the lack of coffee, the uneven execution, and the “throwaway” mochi dessert.

November 2008: Christina Tosi opens the first Milk Bar in the back of Ssäm Bar, and it was “greeted with an apostolic fervor,” according to a Ligaya Mishan review in the Times. Patrons would line up for complex elevations of junk food, including cereal milk, Fruity Pebble milk, crack pie, and compost cookies studded with potato chips. In a pre-Cronut world dominated by cupcake lines, Milk Bar represented the most auteur-esque entry in the city’s pastry and baking scenes.

Milk Bar’s signature pie, which until recently was called “Crack Pie” Momofuku Milk Bar [Official Photo]

October 2008: Chang’s oversized personality sometimes manifested itself at Ssäm, which was a favorite of chefs and food writers. At one point, he allegedly banned writer Josh Ozersky over publishing a menu on Grub Street. As Ozersky told Eater: “One night I walked into Ssäm Bar, and was told in no uncertain terms by Corey Lane and David himself that I was no longer welcome to ever eat in their restaurants again, because they believed that I had mocked them and put them down. I was shocked.” Chang, upon Ozersky’s death in 2015, tweeted that the food writer was “many things and so many of our differences seem so childish now, but he could pen some amazing stuff.”

December 2008: Bruni awards three stars to Ssäm Bar less than two years after his original review — a shockingly quick upgrade by the standards of any major review outlet. This development — which followed a 4,700 word Alan Richman of Chang in GQ and a James Beard Foundation award for best New York chef — signified a mainstream coronation of Ssäm Bar’s counter cultural business model.

2010-2017: Matthew Rudofker ascends to the executive chef position at Ssäm bar. His lengthy tenure, alongside chefs de cuisine Ryan Miller and Tim Maslow in the early years, is characterized by an exaltation of large format items, like a five-spice rotisserie duck and a giant ribeye. Together with the bo ssäm pork butt, Noodle Bar’s fried chicken dinner, and Má Pêche’s beef seven-ways, large-format family-style feasts increasingly become a hallmark of Chang’s global collection of restaurants.

April 2011: Milk Bar closes at Ssäm Bar, relocates across the street a day later, and quickly expands into a national empire of its own.

February 2012: Dave Arnold’s Booker and Dax opens in Ssäm Bar’s old Milk Bar space. It instantly becomes one of New York’s most celebrated cocktail bars, and one of the city’s only bastions of avant-garde eating or drinking — a style of whimsical, science-forward gastronomy that never established deep roots in the five boroughs. Bartenders used centrifuges to infuse bananas with rum and CO2 lines to carbonate both the gin and tonic in a G&T.

Cocktails at Booker and Dax Photo by Nick Solares

Sometime in 2012: The restaurant starts serving a dish known as a pancake cake, which continues the Ssäm Bar predilection for all things large, albeit in dessert form. The delicacy is an unfinished, four-inch high, four-inch wide cake layered with raspberry jam, bacon, maple, and miso ganache. It is a dead ringer for an indulgent Denny’s-style breakfast, only denser, chewier, and less sweet. It feeds four. It is one of the city’s greatest desserts of all time, and a forerunner to other pricey, super big desserts like the Pool’s $41 princess cake.

October 2016: Booker and Dax shutters. On the one hand, this development is heartbreaking for those who saw the cocktail bar as leading the way for a progressive future within the Momofuku empire. On the other hand, Arnold successfully launches his Booker and Dax follow up, Existing Conditions, independently of the Momofuku Empire, within two years. It doesn’t quite approach Milk Bar in its popularity — there’s still just one bar — but the scenario highlights the ability of Ssäm Bar and Momofuku to incubate ideas.

Later in October 2016: After giving us a decade of poor posture — and after getting ravaged for the austere design elements of Nishi — Chang decides comfort is important for Ssäm Bar. He tosses the squat dining room stools and installs chairs with backs. He banishes the communal tables. The old Booker and Dax space becomes a seated dining room, and as a result, Ssäm Bar feels less like a stripped-down vestige of the aughts, and more like a comfortable, traditional restaurant.

May 2017: Max Ng, one of the lieutenants at Ko, becomes executive chef at Ssäm Bar. The menu changes again. Ng introduces ingredients and preparations inspired by his native Singapore, such as sambal-slicked skate wrapped in a charred banana leaf, whole king crab with Hokkien noodles, and coconut pandan pie. Old classics remain, but the new menu, paired with the dining room changes, makes Ssäm feel like an almost entirely new restaurant. In October, New York Times critic Pete Wells awards it three stars. By this time, the restaurant is entirely more amenable to dietary restrictions, and it appears Chang no longer casts hexes upon vegetarians or food writers.

March 2020: Ssäm Bar closes along with all of Momofuku’s other venues amid the global COVID-19 pandemic.

May 2020: Chang announces that Ssäm Bar will relocate to the former Bar Wayō space in the Seaport District when the pandemic abates. Dinner service will use elements of tabletop grilling — currently installed upstairs — which means that Ssäm Bar, will yet again morph into a new restaurant.

Disclosure: David Chang is producing shows for Hulu in partnership with Vox Media Studios, part of Eater’s parent company, Vox Media. No Eater staff member is involved in the production of those shows, and this does not impact coverage on Eater.


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