Traditional recipes

Endive and Watercress Salad with Mustard Seed Vinaigrette

Endive and Watercress Salad with Mustard Seed Vinaigrette


  • 5 large heads of Belgian endive, trimmed, sliced crosswise into 1-inch pieces (about 6 cups)
  • 2 bunches watercress, thick stems trimmed
  • 1 tablespoon apple cider vinegar
  • 2 teaspoons Dijon mustard
  • 1/2 cup dried cranberries

Recipe Preparation

  • Place endive and watercress in large bowl. Mix vinegar and mustard in small bowl; slowly whisk in oil. Add mustard seeds. Season dressing with salt and pepper. Pour dressing over endive and watercress; toss to coat. Transfer salad to platter. Sprinkle with walnuts and cranberries and serve.

Reviews Section

Endive Salad With Shallot Flax Vinaigrette

From: Executive chef/owner Sam Hazan, Tao restaurants. Yield: 1 salad.

2 to 3 endive spears
1/2 cup endive chiffonade
1 to 1-1/2 cups mache and watercress
1 oz. confit of shallot flax vinaigrette
1 oz. Roquefort cheese

Confit of Shallot and Flax Vinaigrette:
1/2 cup shallots
1/2 cup extra virgin olive oil
sachet of 1/4 tsp. thyme, 1/2 tsp. bay leaf, 1/4 tsp. sprig rosemary, 2 tsp. salt, 1/2 tsp. black pepper, 1 Tbsp. ground flax

To finish:
1 cup flax confit
1/2 cup sherry vinegar
1-1/2 Tbsp. Dijon mustard

for garnish, 1 Tbsp. roasted walnuts
for garnish, 2 tsp. shaved pears
for garnish, 1 tsp. flax seed

For endive: Pull off nice outside layers and use for spears. Use center portion to make chiffonade. On pick-up, core, slice, halve and julienne.

For mache/watercress: Clean well.

For confit of shallot and flax vinaigrette: Season shallots with salt and pepper. Let sit for 15 minutes. Place sachet in olive oil and heat to 125¡F. Steep for 15 minutes. Add shallots and bring up to 120¡F. Steep for 15 minutes. Add flax. Whisk to mix well.

Mix mustard and vinegar. Add confit. Mix well. Crumble Roquefort cheese into salad.

For garnish: Blanch walnuts, starting with cold water, to one boil only. Drain. Roast in oven at 325¡F for 10-15 minutes. Cut pears in half. Remove seed with Pariesienne scoop shave on mandoline.

To plate: Moisten endive and mache with vinaigrette. Season with salt and pepper. Toss chiffonade in bowl with 1 oz. vinaigrette. Place chiffonade in center of plate. Place spears on plate. Garnish with mache, cheese, walnuts, pears and watercress. Sprinkle with flax seed.

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Recipe Summary

  • 1/2 shallot, minced
  • 2 tablespoons fresh lemon juice
  • 1 tablespoon red wine vinegar
  • 1 tablespoon Dijon mustard
  • 1 tablespoon water
  • 1/2 cup extra-virgin olive oil
  • Kosher salt
  • Freshly ground pepper
  • 1 1/2 pounds mixed greens, such as escarole, frisée, endive and watercress, torn into bite-size pieces (about 20 loosely packed cups)
  • 3/4 cup pomegranate seeds

In a large bowl, combine the minced shallot with the lemon juice, red wine vinegar, Dijon mustard and water. Whisk in the olive oil until emulsified and season the vinaigrette with salt and pepper. Add the mixed greens and toss to coat. Transfer the salad to a serving platter, garnish with the pomegranate seeds and serve.

  • Kale
  • Spinach
  • Beet Greens
  • Swiss Chard
  • Collard Greens
  • Butter Lettuce
  • Iceberg Lettuce
  • Endive Leaves
  • Watercress
  • Dandelion
  • Mustard
  • Romaine
  • Lettuce
  • Arugula
  • Sesame Ginger
  • Balsamic Vinaigrette
  • Avocado Lime
  • Lemon Vinaigrette
  • Honey Mustard
  • Greek Yogurt Ranch
  • Apple Cider Vinaigrette
  • Ginger Turmeric

The little story of chicory

Common names: chicory, endive, escarole, treviso, radicchio .
Scientific names: Cichorium intybus, Cichorium endivia .
Family: asteraceae (synonym: compound).

The various varieties

The term ” chicory ” was first written in the form of cikore. It appeared in the XIII th century and comes from the Latin medieval cicorea who borrowed from classical Latin cichoreum , itself derived from the Greek kikhorion .

First written as “indivie”, the term ” endive ” appeared in French in the early XIV th century. The word is probably borrowed from the Latin intibum , which took it from the Greek entubion , whose meaning is “wild chicory”. In its first sense, it designates the curly and the escarole, and in its second meaning – the one that is generally used in Quebec – the white shoot of chicory witloof , which can cause some confusion.

The term ” escarole ” which appeared in the XIV th century, comes from the Italian scariola who borrowed from Low Latin escariola . In French, we sometimes wrote “escarole”. The word designates chicory with broad, slightly toothed leaves .

Italian equivalent of “chicory”, the word ” radicchio has, in this language, a very broad meaning, while in America, it indicates only the red chicories with round apples . Under the influence of the Americans who borrowed it from Italian immigrants, it tends to impose itself everywhere in America. In France, we speak rather of “red-leaf chicory”.

The term ” treviso “, which appeared only very recently in the French language (1984), designates red chicories with elongated heads . The word is borrowed from a city in Italy where this type would have been selected.

From chicory to “coffee”: multiple uses

Chicory is native to Europe, central Russia and western Asia. The Egyptians and Greeks knew it, as did the Indians, who used its root for its medicinal properties . In Rome, the root and the leaves were eaten, of which the geese were also fed. In his Natural History , written in the first century AD, Pliny the Elder happily describes the white and red leaves of the radicchio.

The forcing of chicory to produce endive (chicory witloof or Brussels), is known at least since the XIV th century. This practice consists in cultivating, away from light, already established roots. This has the effect of reducing the bitterness of the leaves and making them less fibrous. In the XVI th century, this technique was applied to many varieties of chicory, both Italy and France. In 1830, the Belgians perfected it and obtained white chicoryin the shape of a cigar which is widespread all over the Western world today. Before the discovery of forcing methods, only young leaves, less bitter, were eaten in salads. The rest of the plant (large leaves, roots) was intended for medicinal uses and for farm animals.

The use of chicory root as a coffee substitute dates from the middle of the XVIII th century. This is especially prevalent in the early nineteenth th century, with the continental blockade imposed by Napoleon, which deprived Europe of his favorite beverage. It was around the same time that the plant ( C. intybus ) would have been introduced in America. As in the majority of temperate countries, it has naturalized and has become a weed that we can no longer get rid of.

In the 1660s, a certain Pierre Boucher drew up an inventory of a Canadian garden . Chicory is one of the “herbs” cultivated there, alongside sorrel, leek, onion, garlic, hyssop, borage, etc., but without the we learn more about its uses. In 1749, in his description of a garden in Quebec City, the botanist Peter Kalm also mentions it.

The Italians, in particular, have an almost religious respect for the plant. Many varieties are available in their stores, in cut leaves, in apple, or with leaves and stems. One finds there the tiny grumolos of an extreme rusticity, which spend the winter in the ground to form in spring a splendid rosette. The gigantic Catalan puntarelle , whose leaves resemble those of the dandelion, is very popular. And the elegant castelfranco (also called “edible flower”) has creamy white leaves delicately marked with red spots, the shape of which recalls that of a rose.

Rozanne Gold

My tastebuds experienced a mild shock just the other day at my local farmer’s market in Park Slope, Brooklyn. One of the local producers had a little tasting of its apples for customers passing by. There were four varieties, including my favorite — the Gala apple from New Zealand. As I’m not one to generally eat apples out of hand, but much prefer them sauced, baked, broiled, sauteed, baked in a muffin, or in a pie, I would occasionally buy a Gala for myself and eat it on the spot. But it was another apple last Saturday that stole my affection: the Honeycrisp. Am I the last to know about them? My daughter immediately bought six and at $3 a pound, instead of $2 for other varieties, this autumnal offering was not inexpensive (as apples go), but we have thoroughly enjoyed every bite. Cutting each carefully and arranging them on a pretty plate had a kind of Zen feeling about it — for they are perfectly imperfect — a little too sweet, a little too acidic, a little too delicious.

The Honeycrisp apple was an experiment created by the University of Wisconsin Experimental Station — a cross between a Macoun and a Honeygold (which itself is a hybrid of a Golden Delicious and a Haralson). In the forest of varieties that informs the apple industry, there are local favorites in every zip code, and many imports, including the Fuji apple from Japan, that vie for attention. As a kid, a Granny Smith apple was a special treat — with an exciting tartness and crisp texture so different from the standard bearers way back then. But this year, on my holiday table (Rosh Hashanah) will be a plate of Honeycrisps to begin a new tradition.

The seasonal salad (recipe below) is one of my favorite concoctions — with edible punctuations – a mustard seed, sun-dried cranberry, or a nugget of toasted walnut – in every mouthful. But it is especially celebratory with ultra-thin slices of Honeycrisp apples. Ideas for apple desserts, using any apple, are offered below. Enjoy!


This can be assembled in less than five minutes! The dressing is also suitable for mesclun greens and for tender leaves of spinach. You can easily turn it into a main course salad by topping with a plump grilled chicken breast drizzled with a little more dressing.

5 large Belgian endive, about 1-1/2 pounds
2 bunches watercress
2 medium Honeycrisp apples, cut into very thin wedges
1 tablespoon Dijon mustard
1 tablespoon apple cider vinegar
1/2 cup olive oil
1-1/2 teaspoons mustard seed
½ cup each: toasted walnuts and sun-dried cranberries

Trim ¼-inch from bottom of each endive. Laying each endive on its side on a cutting board, cut across the width into 1-inch pieces. Place them in a large bowl.

Wash watercress, removing bottom half of stems. Dry well and add to bowl with endive. Add apples.

Put mustard and vinegar in a small bowl. Slowly whisk in olive oil until the dressing emulsifies. Add mustard seeds and salt and freshly ground black pepper to taste. Pour over greens and toss gently, making sure to coat all the leaves. Adjust seasoning. Transfer to a platter and scatter walnuts and cranberries on top. Serves 6

And Great Ideas for Any Apple

Saute wedges of peeled apples in butter and sugar until caramelized, then splash with Calvados. Top with vanilla ice cream.

Peel apples and cut in half. Poach in apple cider with a cinnamon stick until tender. Remove apples and reduce cider to a syrup. Pour syrup over apples and top with crème fraiche.

Try an apple cobbler: Toss peeled apple wedges with sugar, orange juice and cinnamon. Top with a mixture of granola mixed with butter. Bake at 400 degrees for 40 minutes.

Peel and core apple. Fill inside with vanilla sugar. Wrap in a square of thawed puff pastry dough and brush with egg wash and sprinkle with sugar. Bake at 400 degrees for 20 minutes.

Fill cavities of large apples with a mixture of crumbled gingersnaps, honey and pecans and dot with butter. Bake 45 minutes at 350 degrees.

Try a new-fangled applesauce by adding fresh strawberries or raspberries and a splash of red wine to apples while cooking. Sweeten with an aromatic honey, like leatherwood.

Make an apple fool: Cook apples with cinnamon-sugar until soft and the consistency of applesauce. Let cool and fold into sweetened whipped cream.

Make toffee apples: Melt a package of caramel candies. Stick a candy-apple stick in each apple and dip the apple three-quarters into caramel. Let sit on waxed paper to harden.

Try three kinds of apples in your next apple pie. Add some grated sharp cheddar cheese to the crust.

Recipe Summary

  • 2 cups shelled fresh peas or frozen peas
  • 1 tablespoon snipped fresh dillweed
  • 1 tablespoon lemon juice
  • 1 tablespoon cider vinegar
  • 2 teaspoons Dijon-style mustard
  • ¼ teaspoon salt
  • ¼ teaspoon freshly ground black pepper
  • 3 tablespoons olive oil
  • 2 small heads Belgian endive
  • 1 large head butter or Bibb lettuce, separated into leaves
  • Freshly ground black pepper
  • 3 tablespoons chopped macadamia nuts, toasted(optional)
  • Chive blossom florets* or snipped fresh chives (optional)

Fill a medium saucepan with water. Bring to boiling over high heat. Add peas cook for 1 minute, stirring once. Immediately drain in a colander. Rinse with cold water. Drain peas again and set aside.

For mustard vinaigrette, in a medium bowl combine dillweed, lemon juice, vinegar, mustard, salt, and the 1/4 teaspoon pepper. Slowly add the oil in a thin stream, whisking until fully blended. Add peas to vinaigrette toss to coat.

Slice endive in half lengthwise and remove core. Slice endive lengthwise into thin strips. Add endive to pea mixture lightly toss to mix.

Arrange lettuce on a platter top with pea mixture. Sprinkle with additional pepper. If desired, top with nuts and chive blossom florets.

Which Salad Dressings to Pair with Which Greens

Pairing greens and dressings is kind of like wine pairings. The right dressing and green can totally make a salad. A heavy blue cheese dressing can come alive with endive. But a light vinaigrette will disappear against its bitter flavor.

Let’s break it down. Here are pairing for 12 of the most popular greens.


Almost any dressing works with iceberg lettuce. Unlike other greens, iceberg is bland, but crispy. So it can hold up under strong-tasting and creamy dressings. It can also work with lighter-flavored dressings (just make sure you add lots of other fresh cold veggies, so you have some substance).


Romaine is as versatile as iceberg. It goes with any dressing. But it holds a nutritional punch compared to iceberg lettuce. Of course, Caesar dressing is a no-brainer here.


If you look at a bunch of spinach wrong, it will wilt. In general, keep your dressings light. Baby spinach is best served with a basic vinaigrette like this one. Older leaves can be paired with a tad bit of creaminess or fat. And for some reason, spinach and bacon work. So any dressing made with bacon, just do it.

Spring Greens

Let’s talk about delicate greens. And spring mixes are at the top of the list. Vinaigrettes are best. Anything heavier will result in soggy salads (Ew!).


This persnickety green will dramatically wilt under thick dressings like ranch or blue cheese. Light vinaigrettes will bring out its peppery flavor while retaining its crispness.

Bibb Lettuce

Bibb greens are like arugula. In the salad world, this lettuce is dainty and needs delicate care. Again, heavy dressings will not work. Instead go for vinaigrettes. It’ll hold up under the dressing just fine.

Get the full story on Salad Dressings:


This is a good middle-of-the-road green for a good middle-of-the-road dressing. Nothing too light. Nothing too thick. Radicchio pairs well with a mustard-based or ranch dressing.


Watercress is another medium-bodied green. It has a peppery flavor that can hold its own against ranch or any fatty dressing.


OK, endive is made for a thick and creamy dressing like blue cheese. These leaves are heavy and bitter and can withstand something as glorious as a homemade blue cheese dressing. How many greens can brag about that?


This green tastes bitter, and pairs nicely with a fattier dressing, like thousand island. Heavier vinaigrettes work too. If a dressing has fat and salt, it’ll work with frisee.

Oh, what can I say about one of the trendiness of greens? Kale is rough and sturdy, so a good acidic vinaigrette is a must. Here’s a quick science lesson (I’m embracing my inner Bill Nye). Acids, such as lemon juice, break down kale’s cellular structure. In other words, it softens the leaves, making it much easier to eat. So mix those raw kale leaves with an acidic dressing and let them sit for a couple of minutes before digging in.

Swiss Chard

Swiss chard may be thinner than kale, but it is still a tough green. So what do you need? An acidic vinaigrette. It’ll soften the leaves and give the salad a nice bite.

Spicy Organic Chicken Wings| salad.
1 kg organic chicken wings.
2 tbsp Olive oil.
1 tbsp Pepper.
1 tbsp Salt.
2 garlic.
1 tsp Chilli Powder.
1 tbsp Herbs.
1 Chilli.
Chilli Sauce.
Mixed salad Green Leaf or Iceberg.
1 Red Bell Pepper.
1 Green Bell Pepper.
1 yellow bell Pepper.
1 cup Black Olives.
1 cup Tomatoes.
1 cup corn.
French salad dressing.
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Ingredients 4 cups torn mixed salad greens 2 tablespoons sliced green onion 2 medium red apples, diced 2 kiwifruit, peeled and sliced 1 cup unsweetened raspberries 1/2 cup poppy seed or French salad dressing. Boil 1/4 cup balsamic vinegar, 2 tablespoons brown sugar and the juice of 1 lemon in a saucepan until thickened, about 5 minutes. Whisk in 2/3 cup olive oil and.

Ingredients 1 (15 ounce) can whole kernel corn, drained 1 (15 ounce) can peas, drained 1 (15 ounce) can kidney beans, drained ½ cup minced red onion ½ cup chopped celery ½ cup sliced radishes 1. Red and Green Tossed Salad. Mixed greens tossed with apple chunks, walnuts and dried cranberries offer a fresh and palate-pleasing salad perfect for. DIRECTIONS. Combine all dressing ingredients, except mayonnaise, in a small pan.

Cook over medium heat just until sugar is dissolved, stirring frequently so it doesn’t stick. In a lg. bowl, combine all salad ingredients, and mix well. Add dressing, and mix well. Let cool. Place the green and red cabbage in a large bowl and sprinkle with sugar.

Massage the cabbage with your hands for about 30 seconds to one minute. This will help to break down the fibers.

List of related literature:

The suspected salad mix contained four salad green types: arugula, radicchio rosso, iceberg lettuce and endive.

If you are preparing a tossed salad for a more upscale presentation, greens such as red leaf lettuce, frisée, oakleaf, radicchio, arugula, Bibb, watercress, or the popular mesclun mix may be the choice.

Mixed green salads made with two or three types of greens— spinach, bibb or leaf lettuce, and iceberg lettuce—can be beautiful studies in shades of green, yet they are high in fiber and provide a useful amount of provitamin A, folacin, and some minerals.

Add the red leaf variety to green salad for an elegant contrast, or mix red and green leaf together in one bowl.

For more information on specific salad green varieties, see Lettuce, page 154, and Bitter Salad Greens, page 156.