Traditional recipes

Mushroom spreads

Mushroom spreads

Peel a squash, grate it and chop finely

Chop the onion and fry in a little oil, then put the chopped mushrooms and let them cook well until the water drops, salt and pepper

After they have hardened well, they are drained so that they do not remain liquid, then they are mixed with fasting mayonnaise and crushed garlic.

They are placed on bread spreads and served with a glass of talk with friends

It can also be served as an appetizer in various forms


Marcel Ioan Dita recipe: Mini sandwiches with cheese, onion and mushrooms

1. Cut the fresh baguette into slices, at a maximum thickness of 8 mm, after the eyes, and put them in the oven until they become semi-crispy.

2. As soon as we take the slices out of the oven, rub them with a clove of garlic and drizzle a drop of olive oil on top, then set them aside.

3. Cut the onion as small as possible and mix it with the cheese, season with salt and seasoning.

4. Put the cheese on top of the slice of baguette that was previously greased with butter and garnish with a cherry tomato ring inside which we put sliced ​​bacon as small as onions. Put an onion scale on top.

5. Prepare a mayonnaise from an egg (it must be at room temperature not from the fridge) and mix it with the boiled yolks from the other two eggs.

6. Peel a squash, grate it and rub it with a little olive oil.

8. Grease the slice of baguette with butter, put the mushroom on top, put the egg paste over the mushroom and garnish with finely chopped olives and red currant.

9. On the plate are placed as an ornament some of the ingredients used (mushroom, olive, cherry tomato, red currant and onion).

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Content

The common ancestor of fungi and animals was probably a flagellated unicellular organism that lived more than a billion years ago. A discovery in an 850-million-year-old slate in Canada is sometimes interpreted as a mushroom fossil. Alleged discoveries in China and Australia, 1.5 billion years old, have yet to be confirmed as fungi. The first largely undisputed discoveries date from the Ordovician geological period and can be attributed to arboreal mycorrhizal fungi. Fossil fungi have also been found in amber, among other things, on well-known coal deposits in Scotland and England, in the late Triassic, carnivorous in Germany, and in remarkable biodiversity in Cretaceous and Tertiary Canadian and Baltic Canadian amber. In some of these discoveries are found mushrooms that attacked termites and nematodes, being closed by the resin together with their hosts. [1] [2] [3]

While the vast majority of fungi that appear today no longer develop flagella, flagellate spores or gametes appear during the reproduction of the species in the cluster. Chytridiomycota. The fungi probably left the water before the plants and colonized the land surface. Since the first known terrestrial plants did not yet have real roots, but obviously living in symbiosis with mycorrhizal arboreal fungi from the Glomeromycota division, it is assumed that these fungi made it hardly possible for the plants to colonize this land. Successful passage of plants would not have been possible without symbiosis with sponges. [4]

Systematic Modification

About 100,000 species are known in the Fungi Kingdom. According to current estimates (2017), however, there are between 2.2 and 3.8 million of them. [5] The Kingdom is divided as follows: [6]

  • Class I: Phycomycota
  • Class II: Eumycota
    • Subclass 1: Ascomycota
      • Section a: Protoascomycetes sin. Saccharomycetales
      • Section b: Euascomycetes (Plectascales, Pseudosphaeriales, Sphaeriales, Pezizales)
      • Section a: Holobasidiomycetes
      • Section b: Phragmobasidiomycetes sin. Heterobasidiomycetes (Uredinales, Ustilaginales)

      Ontogenesis Modification

      Due to the lack of chromatophores, mushrooms are not suitable for assimilation.

      Some live as parasites or saprophytes on land or in freshwater, very rarely in the sea. Some species are heterotrophic not only for oxygen and nitrogen, but also for other active substances. Their fruiting body consists largely of hose-shaped branched cells, which often contain more than one haploid nucleus. Hyphae (walls, thin filaments) are composed mainly of chitin, only rarely of cellulose. The sum of the hyphae is called mycelium. Some single-celled organisms in the cluster Phycomycota, especially of Ascomycota, do not form mycelium. Eukaryotes Myxogastria sin. Myxomycetes, plasmodial viscous fungi, possess vegetative bodies formed completely differently. More or less all varieties can be grown.

      Another part practices a form of symbiosis between them and plants in which a fungus comes in contact with the fine root system of a plant, called mycorrhiza. Here there are varieties with transversely septate hyphae like others, where this differentiation is missing. In aseptic forms, the entire mycelium can be viewed as a single multi-nuclear cell (syncytium). Also the septate forms of Ascomycetes and many Imperfect fungi they must be seen as sincere. Transverse walls are formed in these organisms only for the separation of the reproductive organs. The transverse walls retain a central cell nucleus of variable size due to premature cessation of wall synthesis by incarnating centripetal. This pore allows not only a plasma contact of neighboring cells, but also the crossing of cell nuclei like other cellular organs. Only in Basiomycetes is there a classification into true cells, comparable to those of higher plants. The hyphae of the upper fungi can materialize during the formation of the fruiting body in a quasi-tissue. These species cannot be grown in general. [6]

      General characteristics of the Eumycota twig in brief Modification

      • Eukaryotic organisms
      • most are multicellular
      • heterotrophic organisms
      • populates any environment
      • nemotile
      • continuous growth
      • the presence of the cell wall
      • the cell membrane (when present) is made up of mycocellulose or mycosin
      • the presence of chitin, callus, etc. within the cell wall are completely missing
      • urea formation
      • multiplication by spores containing reserve substances: glycogen and fat droplets.

      Ultrastructure Modification

      To most representatives of the kingdom fungous the structure of the body is somewhat similar. Here are some common features:

      Fungi reproduce both asexually and sexually.

      Asexual reproduction Change

      In the case of fungi, asexual (vegetative) reproduction is very common. Propagation does not take place through the formation of sex cells, but through the formation of agametes (spores that form a new organism without fusion with another cell) that some species even lack. These sponges are called Imperfect fungi. There are different types of spores, for example: [6] [7] [8]

      • Arthrospores (powdery mildew): are caused by the rupture of hyphae in individual cells.
      • Ascospores: are vessels in the form of an elongated sac, in which fungal meiosis takes place and in which haploid ascospores are formed, which in turn represent a form of spread to some types of fungi. Sporulation is often necessary to quickly generate offspring, for example to overcome periods of hunger.
      • Blastospores: form as protuberances at the tips of the hyphae or in other positions and mature from the base. It separates without the formation of septa. If blastospores form on minor axes, they are called sympodiospores.
      • Chlamydospores: immobile, with coarse walls, intercalation develops (restricted to certain areas) or by swelling of the hyphae heads, both inside the hyphae and through the so-called germination. Terrestrial and aquatic fungi can develop them under unfavorable living conditions.
      • Conidiospores: by constriction at the tip of certain fungal hyphae, the so-called conidiophores are formed, from which the conidiospores are subsequently released. They are exospores.
      • Porospores: with thick walls are formed individually or at the vertices through pores in the cell wall of the hypora carrying spores and can also be formed as chains that grow from the base to the tip.
      • Sporangiospores: they form endogenously in special hyphae, so-called sporangia (in Phycomycota), sac-like fruit containers, inside which sporangiospores develop.
      • Zoospores: are found only in aquatic fungi, being flagellated spores that develop endogenously in zoosporangia.

      Sexual reproduction Change

      The principle of sexual reproduction that does not produce identical offspring, unlike asexual reproduction, is the formation of new genetically composed spores (meiospores) after cell fusion (plasmogamy), nuclear fusion (karyogamy) and cell division (meiosis).

      Mushrooms can form conidia with sexual spores. They are usually haploid, so they have only one simple set of chromosomes in their cell nuclei and only go through a short diploid phase with two sets of chromosomes during sexual reproduction. Two spores completely merge (including karyogamy, plasmogamy) and form a new diploid cell. Between them there is a phase with two nuclei in the fungi Basidiomycota and most fungi Ascomycota which is not known to other living things. In this phase, each cell contains two haploid nuclei of different "parental" origin. These processes are also possible alternatively, so that fungi can pass between haploid and diploid organisms, as well as between sexual and asexual reproduction. The course of sexual processes differs greatly in the different systematic departments of the fungi. Such varieties are called Perfect fungi. [9] [10]

      Fungus fungi Mucoromycota and Zoopagomycota they do not form fruiting bodies, but exist only as multi-nuclear mycelium. In them, the neighboring hyphae emit extensions, called gametangii, which combine in the shape of a yoke. The point of contact then swells, the separating cell walls dissolve and the multi-nuclear fusion product is isolated from the two gametangs by partitions. The diploid phase is achieved by fusing cell nuclei in pairs. [11] [12]

      Finally, it should be noted that the formation of fruiting bodies is associated with a considerable increase in metabolic activity, because they form considerably more proteins and nucleic acids than in the mycelium and due to this, increased energy consumption is required, which is it also reflects in a corresponding increase in oxygen consumption. [13]

      Outline of reproduction types (possible) Change

      Mushrooms act as a decomposer of dead organic materials (saprophytes), feed as parasites on other living things or live in a reciprocal (mutualistic) symbiosis with plants (mycorrhiza) or together with blue-green algae (lichens). Due to the very efficient distribution of spores, they are practically everywhere where a suitable substrate is available and can generally use a very wide range of food sources. [14]

      • Saprophytes: there are on the one hand species that grow on rich soil, leaves, garbage, horse manure, etc. (which they feed on), on the other hand sponges that can break down and use lignin almost exclusively. They are also the most important users in the breakdown of cellulose, hemicellulose and keratin. Together with bacteria and small animal organisms, they form humus from organic waste. The importance of fungi in the degradation of lignin and especially of the very lignin-rich trunks of dead trees is highlighted in several ways. Only fungi, especially certain varieties of the Basidiomycota cluster, which are grouped under the name "white rot fungi" (a term used to describe the decomposition of wood by fungi, when they mainly decompose brown lignin and remain colorless cellulose), are able to decompose. effectively larger pieces of dead wood. These organic nutrients are converted to inorganic substances, such as carbon dioxide or nitrates. Unlike bacteria, some of which can make the most of available products of already partially degraded lignin, fungi with their hyphae actively enter the wood, having the enzymes needed for complicated and energy-intensive degradation. Oxygen is absolutely necessary for this degradation process. Where this is not the case, the wood is stored for a long time, for example in peat bogs) and is finally transformed into coal for long geological periods. [15] [16]
      • Parasites: when a fungus parasitizes a plant, it enters its cells with specialized hyphae, which allow the parasite to enter its host tissues and absorb nutrients from them (eg species such as Armillariella on softwoods). They penetrate the cell wall, but leave the cell membrane intact (otherwise the cell plasma would escape and the host cell would die), wrapping it only so that it is now surrounded by a double membrane. This process allows the removal of nutrients from the plasma of the host cell. Parasitic fungi are often specialized for certain host organisms. To find the right ones, they developed different methods. First of all, they produce large amounts of spores, thus increasing the chance that some of them will reach compatible host plants. Fungi out of order Weather in Pucciniales (rust fungi) for example infest mainly stems and leaves. They have a complex life cycle, which often includes changing hosts. A number of representatives are of economic importance because they affect agricultural crops (e.g. Puccinia graminis on cereals, Puccinia striiformis on wheat or Melampsorella caryophyllacearum on silver fir). Other species have learned to spread effectively through insects that visit host plants. Thus, certain yeasts that live in nectar are transported from flower to flower. Spores Monilinia fructigena, the causative agent of fruit rot of fruit trees, are spread by wasps, which at the same time ensure access to the fungus by gnawing the fruit. Species of the order Ustilaginales they can live saprophytically in the soil for years without host plants. An example is Ustilago maydis (corn fire): up to 12 years later, infectious mycelium was found in a field affected by it that immediately parasitizes freshly sown plants again. [17] [18] Animals and humans can also suffer from fungal infections when they come in contact with fungal spores of the order Dermatophytes, such as Microsporum canis infesting mainly dogs and cats (20%), rarely humans [19] or the well-known athlete's foot (Tinea pedis). [20]
      • Mycorrhizans: are included in many families of large fungi of the Basidiomycota cluster (eg Amanitaceae, Boletaceae, Cantharellaceae, Russulaceae, Suillaceae) where the mycelium of the fungus wraps around the roots of the trees as a mycelial sheath, penetrating not into the bark, but also into the bark. . But in much larger numbers there are very small fungi in the Glomeromycota division that form arboreal mycorrhizal associations, penetrating the cells of the bark. However, they are the most valuable mushrooms for nature. They form mycorrhizal associations with plants, transferring water and various inorganic substances, especially phosphates and minerals, to the roots, as the fine mycelium penetrates the soil closer than the suction roots could, receiving in return carbohydrates, especially sugar, which it produces the plant through photosynthesis. Fungi could not live without this symbiosis because they are not able to produce organic substances. But in turn, some plants would survive very hard without the help of these fungi. There is a very close contact between the roots of the sponges and the roots of the trees. This better nutrition is especially noticeable in very poor soils. As for the tree fungi, it should be mentioned that sometimes they can prevent the growth of the plant. [21] [22]

      Orchids are an extreme case, many of which are already dependent on their fungal symbiotic partners when their seeds germinate under natural conditions. Some orchids, for example Neottia nidus-avis, do not contain chlorophyll and therefore cannot photosynthesize, but get all the nutrients from the fungus, which they thus parasitize. [2. 3]

      • Lichens: they have a special position. They are fungi that harbor unicellular blue-green algae as symbionts and are therefore photoautotrophic, ie they are not dependent on external food sources due to the photosynthesis of their symbionts. Unlike any of the partners alone, they can colonize extreme habitats. However, the mushrooms in question are difficult to viable without their symbionts, while the latter can thrive and isolate. For lichens, the advantage of symbiosis is that a much wider range of habitats opens up for them. [24]
      • Specifications

      - Marine and xerophilous species

      Mushrooms, especially from the Ascomycota cluster, are also widespread in marine habitats, ie in an extremely saline environment, being parasitic on plants and animals from the sea. They combat high osmotic pressure by properly enriching polyols (higher alcohols), mainly glycerin, but also mannitol and arabitol in the hyphae. The situation is similar to xerophilous molds and yeasts (extremophilic organisms that can live and reproduce in conditions with low water availability). They grow, for example, which can grow on pickled herring or marmalade. [25]

      Most fungi are aerobic organisms. But some are anaerobic, they can either manage temporarily without oxygen (optional anaerobic), for example yeasts that ferment under these conditions, living on sugar (for them much more efficient than with aerobic respiration), or even lost the ability to use it at all (mandatory anaerobic) as species of the family Neocallimastigaceae, which live in the rumen of ruminants being specialized in the use of cellulose. [26]

      Mushrooms can populate almost any living environment, subject to certain conditions, valid for most terrestrial species:

      • the presence of the organic substrate
      • lack of too much brightness
      • high temperature
      • enough moisture.

      For humans, fungi play both a positive and a negative role. See also below under "external links".

      There are species that are easy to identify, but others, where confusion is possible and sometimes with a fatal result. Some examples in detail:

      - The order Agaricales it is the most dangerous. Thus lethal species of the genus postponed (Amanita phalloides, Amanita verna, Amanita virosa) respectively quite toxic as Amanita gemmata, Amanita pantherina) or those of the kind Clitocybe with for example Clitocybe dealbata (+), Clitocybe fragrans, Clitocybe rivulosa (+) such as those in the genre Cortinarius (Cortinarius cinnamomeus, Cortinarius gentilis (+), Cortinarius orellanus (+), Cortinarius rubellus (+) or Cortinarius traganus), often have a great resemblance to edible varieties. Varieties of the genus Inocybe are all severely poisonous, while those of Gomphidius and family sponges Hygrophoraceae with all edibles. In addition, species declared edible in older mycological books are still collected, but in the meantime they have proved as deadly as possible, such as Paxillus involutus or Equestrian tricholoma. Galerina marginata caused quite a few lethal poisons by confusing it with for example Flammulina velutipes or Kuehneromyces mutabilis, as and Pleurocybella porrigens.

      - The order Bulletins includes species with white to yellowish pores (greenish-yellow) and others with reddish to red pores. In those with open pores there are no toxic smiles, but some are inedible due to the bitter taste (Boletus calopus, Boletus radicans, Tylopilus felleus). In those with red pores a confusion of edible species with poisonous ones, but not lethal, is quite slight, as for example with Boletus lupinus, Boletus rhodoxanthus or Boletus satanas).

      - The order Cantharellales does not know inedible or even toxic mushrooms.

      - The order Polyporales knows mostly edible mushrooms. Some species cannot be eaten, being bitter or of harsh consistency.

      - The order Russulales has its own rules. For the genres Lactarius, Lactifluus and Russula it matters, that all sponges without an unpleasant odor such as a sharp or inconvenient taste are edible. Even some of those hot ones could be eaten. [27] [28]

      - The twig Ascomycota knows very toxic mold fungi (Hypomyces chrysospermus, Serpula lacrymans), but also for example very useful yeast. As for families with larger mushrooms it can be said that Morchellaceae-they are all edible, but Helvellaceae-they have poisonous or suspicious species among them, not always easy to identify, being thus only something for connoisseurs.

      You can see more details on the description page of the mushrooms.

      These mushrooms contain psychotropic substances such as psilocybin, psilocin, muscimol or ergot. The best known are psilocybin-containing fungi. Their effects are sometimes compared to those of LSD. These include exotic species, such as Psilocybe cubensis but also native species, such as Mycena pura, Pluteus salicinus or Psilocybe semilanceata. Amanita muscaria and Amanita regalis contain ibotenic acid and the toxic and psychotropic muscimol derivative, much more effective in the dry stage. Both substances are classified as delusional. [29] In addition to other toxic substances, Claviceps purpurea it also contains ergot. [30] Psychoactive mushrooms have had and still have a spiritual significance as entheogenic substances for various indigenous peoples. [31] Inexperienced mushroom pickers risk picking mushrooms that contain these substances. Unfortunately, many young people also experiment with these sponges without thinking about the harmful effects on health.

      In the world, there are over 100 species of mushrooms used for therapeutic purposes, especially in China and Japan. They contain proteins, amino acids, vitamins, minerals and many other active microelements, becoming adjuvant agents in the complementary therapies of many diseases. [32] In Europe and North America, mushrooms have also been used for medicinal purposes since the early twentieth century. Drugs like the antibiotic penicillin are made from mushrooms. Other fungal metabolites lower cholesterol or help with malaria (Metarhizium pingshaense genetically engineered). [33]

      - A large role is played by the mass cultivation of large edible saprophytic and parasitic fungi. The best known are Agaricus bisporus, Auricularia auricula-judae, Lentinula edodes, sin. Lentinus edodes and Pleurotus ostreatus. [34] .

      - Among single-celled mushrooms, sugar yeasts of the genus Saccharomyces, especially baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, But and Saccharomyces bayanus, Saccharomyces ellipsoides and Saccharomyces uvarum (there are over 1,500 species), are the best known mushrooms useful in this field. They produce alcohol and carbon dioxide by alcoholic fermentation and are used to bake a dough, to brew beer, to make wine, to make other alcoholic beverages as well as certain (also low-alcohol) milk products (eg kefir). . [35] Yeast used today is usually grown, produced biotechnologically, but the one that lives naturally on the surface of grapes is still used in many cases, especially in wine production. In addition to lactic acid bacteria, the dough used in baking bread also contains yeast. [36] Mold fungus Botrytis cinerea it also plays a role in wine production. In cool, humid autumn weather, it causes rot on the grains, which causes the grain to perforate. Later, they lose water, leaving behind a higher percentage of solids, such as sugars, fruit acids and minerals, resulting in a more concentrated and intense final product. Yquem Castle is the only Premier Cru Supérieur, largely due to the susceptibility of the vineyard to the so-called noble rot. [37] On the other hand, the fungus is very harmful to, for example, strawberries or tomatoes. [38]

      - Many types of mold (Penicillium candidum, Penicillium camemberti, Penicillium roqueforti, Penicillium glaucum etc.) play an important role in the maturation process of dairy products, especially sour dairy products and cheeses (eg Blue Stilton, Gorgonzola, Roquefort, infested with blue mold or Camembert and Brie cheese with white) . [39] [40] On the contrary, the rot of bread Rhizopus stolonifer which harms and for example sweet potatoes strawberries, papaya, plums or tomatoes is very toxic to humans and animals. [41]

      The largest fasting are cultivated saprophytic fungi and parasites. Agaricus bisporus is the most important edible sponge grown worldwide. It was first raised in Paris by Olivier de Serres (1539-1619) during the reign of King Louis XIII of France. They followed Agaricus bitorquis, which performs stronger meat such as brown mushroom, derived from Agaricus silvaticus. [42] [43] Agaricus subrufescens sin. Agaricus blazei is a mushroom cultivated in the Far East and South America due to its famous medicinal properties, which have been attributed to it since ancient times, among others against cancer. It is used in alternative medicine. [44] But scientific evidence is lacking to this day. [45] Worldwide, about 1.5 million tons of mushrooms have been produced annually (2011). At European level, about 60% of this quantity is produced, ie around 900,000 tonnes, with the main mushroom-producing countries being France, Poland, Italy and Hungary. Of all the mushroom species, Romanians prefer the species Agaricus (Champignon), while abroad the species is much more appreciated oyster, [46] and in East Asia the varieties Mu-Err and Shiitake.

      A lot of money is also made with powders, tinctures and capsules from "medicinal mushrooms". But the effect is doubtful. [47]


      Hot spreads with mushrooms in 5 minutes. They cook quickly and are great for breakfast!

      We offer you a quick recipe for hot spreads with mushrooms, only good for breakfast, lunch or snacks between meals. The recipe is very simple and will appeal even to children. The sandwiches are prepared in just 5 minutes, after which they are baked in the oven until they are browned and the cheese is melted. The hot spreads are delicious, with a dizzying aroma and delicious taste.

      INGREDIENTS

      METHOD OF PREPARATION

      1. Wash the mushrooms, clean them and cut them into pieces. Put them in a bowl. Grate the cheese and add it to the mushrooms. Season with salt and pepper to taste, add mayonnaise, then mix all ingredients well.

      2. Cut the bread into thin slices.

      3. Line the tray with baking paper, place the slices of bread and spread the mushroom filling on top.

      4. Place the sandwiches in the preheated oven at 200 degrees and bake for 10-15 minutes. When the sandwiches are browned, take them out of the oven, move them to a plate and serve them at the table.


      1. Saute the finely chopped onion in the 2 tablespoons of oil, over low heat, 4-5 minutes, then add the chopped pepper and grated carrot.
      2. Mix for a minute in the mushroom stew ingredients, then add the sliced ​​mushrooms and a cup of water (250 ml).
      3. Put the lid on the mushroom stew and stir occasionally, leaving the stew on low-medium heat for the next 20 minutes.

      4. When the mushrooms have completely changed color, let the stew drop, season with salt and pepper, then add the diced tomatoes.
      5. Mix in the stew and leave it on the fire for another 5-10 minutes, then sprinkle it with plenty of dill. Serve the mushroom stew with polenta freshly prepared with hot peppers.


      Recipes with low-calorie diet mushrooms

      Due to their light aroma and versatility, mushrooms are the perfect ingredient to get delicious dishes. So, if you are trying to adopt a healthy diet, do not hesitate to try the options that we will share below!

      1. Mushroom and black bean burgers

      How about some delicious vegan burgers with mushrooms? If you try this recipe, we are sure it will become one of your favorites. To make vegan burgers, you will need ingredients such as black beans, brown rice, vegetables and breadcrumbs. They are simply delicious!

      Ingredients

      • 1 cup boiled brown rice (200 g)
      • 1 cup canned black beans processed into puree (200 g)
      • Olive oil (required quantity)
      • 6-8 finely chopped mushrooms
      • 1 finely chopped celery stalk
      • 1 small chopped carrot
      • ¼ finely chopped red onion
      • 2 cloves of crushed garlic
      • Teaspoon of salt (3 g)
      • 2 cups breadcrumbs (400 g)
      • 1 tablespoon ground chia seeds (15 g)
      • 2 tablespoons nutritious yeast (30 g)
      • 5 teaspoons soy sauce (25 ml)
      • The juice of a lemon

      Additional ingredients (toppings)

      • Buns for artisanal burgers
      • Slices of vegan cheese
      • Sliced ​​tomatoes
      • Sliced ​​red onions
      • Lettuce with leaves
      • Sliced ​​pickles
      • Sauces (to taste)

      Method of preparation

      • For starters, heat a large skillet with a little olive oil over medium-high heat.
      • Then add the chopped mushrooms, celery, onion, garlic and carrot. Saute the vegetables for a few minutes until soft.
      • Add salt and mix.
      • Add black beans, brown rice, breadcrumbs and ground chia seeds. Mix all the ingredients and also add the yeast, soy sauce and lemon juice.
      • Make sure you get a thick mixture. After that, put it in the fridge for an hour.
      • After this time has elapsed, shape the burgers and cook them in oil for three to five minutes.
      • If you want, cover each burger with a slice of cheese.

      Assembly

      • Using the additional ingredients, începe asamblarea tradițională a burgerului.
      • Întinde sos peste chiflă și acoperă cu salată, o felie de roșie, murături, ceapă și burgerul cu ciuperci.

      2. Paste bolognese cu ciuperci

      Există multe rețete italiene cu ciuperci. De data aceasta, am decis să-ți împărtășim această rețetă de ciuperci bolognese. Necesită ingrediente suplimentare, precum legumele și parmezanul.

      Ingredients

      • Tăiței uscați (500 g)
      • 2 linguri de unt sau ulei de măsline (20 g)
      • 1 ceapă albă mică, curățată și tăiată cubulețe
      • 1 morcov mare, curățat și tăiat cubulețe
      • 2 tije de țelină tocate
      • 4 căței de usturoi zdrobiți
      • Ciuperci asortate proaspete (500 g)
      • ½ ceașcă de vin roșu (125 ml)
      • 1 și ½ căni de supă de legume (475 ml)
      • Sos de roșii (400 g)
      • 1 bay leaf
      • 1 linguriță de condimente italiene sau amestec fin de ierburi (7 g)
      • Un vârf de cuțit de piper roșu măcinat
      • Sare și piper negru proaspăt măcinat
      • Parmezan ras (după gust)

      Method of preparation

      • Mai întâi, gătește pastele într-o oală mare cu apă sărată. Când devin al dente, ia-le de pe foc și strecoară-le.
      • Între timp, într-o tigaie separată, pune untul sau uleiul și încălzește-l la foc mediu-mare.
      • Călește ceapa, morcovul și țelina timp de șase până la opt minute.
      • Când legumele devin fragede, adaugă usturoiul și ciupercile și continuă să amesteci încă cinci minute.
      • Apoi, când ciupercile devin maronii, toarnă vinul și amestecă.
      • Lasă să fiarbă încă trei minute.
      • Apoi, adaugă supa de legume, sosul de roșii, frunza de dafin, condimentul italian și un vârf de cuțit de sare și piper. Amestecă.
      • Lasă amestecul să fiarbă în continuare timp de încă 10 minute.
      • Toarnă sosul de ciuperci pe paste și servește imediat.
      • Dacă dorești, presară parmezan după gust.

      3. Ciuperci Stroganoff

      Cine a spus că ai nevoie de carne pentru a te bucura de Stroganoff? Poți face o rețetă delicioasă folosind ciuperci. Durează doar 15 minute! Iată cum.

      Ingredients

      • 1 lingură de ulei (15 ml)
      • 1 ceapă medie tocată
      • 4 căței de usturoi zdrobiți
      • Ciuperci feliate (500 g)
      • Supă de legume (50 ml)
      • 1 lingură de boia afumată (15 g)
      • Piper negru (după gust)
      • 3 linguri de smântână (45 g)
      • 4 linguri de pătrunjel proaspăt tocat (60 g)

      Method of preparation

      • Mai întâi, încălzește o tigaie mare cu puțin ulei.
      • Apoi, călește ceapa, usturoiul și ciupercile la foc mediu timp de aproximativ cinci până la zece minute.
      • Când legumele sunt fragede, adăugă supa de legume și boiaua afumată.
      • Condimentează amestecul cu piper negru și gătește-l încă cinci minute.
      • Chiar înainte de servire, adaugă smântâna si jumătate din pătrunjel.
      • Când aranjezi preparatul pe farfurie, folosește și restul de pătrunjel.

      Ești gata să încerci aceste rețete de ciuperci pentru dietă cu conținut scăzut de calorii? Nu ezita să le incluzi în dietă! Nu uita: la fel ca în cazul oricărei mese, trebuie să ai grijă la dimensiunea porțiilor.


      Mâncare de post cu ciuperci și cartofi

      Perioada postului exploatează la maximum creativitatea unei gospodine, mai ales atunci când membrii familiei adoră preparatele cu carne, astfel că trebuie să „te prezinți“ cu un preparat de post extrem de gustos pentru a le satisface papilele gustative.

      Venim în întâmpinarea ta cu trei idei de rețete de mâncare de post cu ciuperci și cartori, un preparat pe cât de delicos, pe atât de sățios. Nu necesită ingrediente sofisticate, se prepară repede și fără prea mare efort, unde mai punem că este și sănătos.

      1. Mâncare de post cu cartofi și ciuperci

      Ingredient:

      • 1 kilogram de cartofi
      • 1 conservă de ciuperci sau 250 g ciuperci champignon la caserolă
      • 1 ceapă,
      • 1 morcov mic
      • 1 ardei gras
      • sare și piper după gust
      • 1 legătură de pătrunjel verde
      • 4 linguri de ulei.

      Method of preparation:

      1. Se curăță și se spală bine cartofii sub jetul de apă, după care se taie în cubulețe.

      2. Se scurg ciupercile de zeamă (dacă folosiți ciuperci la caserolă), apoi se toacă sau se feliază.

      3. Se curăță și se spală ciupercile (dacă folosiți ciuperci proaspete), după care fie se toacă, fie se feliază.

      4. Se curăță ceapa, morcovul, ardeiul și se toacă mărunt, iar apoi se pun în ulei încins, la călit, într-o tigaie adâncă.

      5. Se călesc legumele timp de aproximativ 1 minut, amestecându-se atent cu o spatulă de lemn ca să nu se ardă.

      6. Se adaugă cartofii tăiați cubulețe și se condimentează cu sare și piper, după gust.

      7. Se acoperă tigaie cu un capac și se lasă legumele la călit pentru încă 2-3 minute.

      8. Se adaugă ciupercile tocate, se călesc și ele puțin, iar apoi se adaugă un pahar mare cu apă rece.

      9. Se reduce focul la minim și se lasă la gătit pentru 25-30 de minute, amestecând din când în când ca să nu se ardă.

      10. După ce s-au fiert legumele, se adaugă pătrunjelul tocat, se amestecă ușor și mâncarea e gata.


      Tartine fierbinți rapide și crocante cu ciuperci champignon!

      Tartine fierbinți cu ciuperci champignon – aromate, crocante și nemaipomenit de apetisante! Atât de gustoase, iar cel mai important se pregătesc simplu și rapid. Acest preparat vă vine mereu în ajutor – familia și oaspeții vor fi pur și simplu încântați!

      INGREDIENT:

      – 120 gr de ciuperci champignon

      METHOD OF PREPARATION:

      1. Setați cuptorul la 180°С și îl lăsați să se încălzească.

      2. Treceți cașcavalul prin răzătoarea mare. Ciupercile le tăiați cuburi foarte mici sau le dați prin răzătoarea mare. Ceapa o tăiați la fel bucăți foarte mici.

      3. Transferați ingredientele într-un vas, le amestecați, adăugați maioneză și mai amestecați o dată. Condimentați compoziția cu sare și piper negru.

      4. Ungeți fiecare felie de franzelă cu câte aproximativ 1 lingură de umplutură, repartizând-o uniform, și așezați tartinele pe tava unsă cu unt.

      5. Dați tava la cuptorul preîncălzit până la 180°С pentru 15-16 minute.

      E timpul potrivit să pregătiți o cafea sau un ceai pentru aceste tartine delicioase. Sunt crocante și cu o minunată aromă de cașcaval! Ciupercile se combină perfect cu cașcavalul și ceapa, care nu se evidențiază din gustul comun, dar îl completează foarte bine.


      Tartine cu sos alb cu ciuperci

      Se prepara un sos alb mai gros din faina, unt si lapte. Faina si untul se infierbinta intr-o cratita de 1 l, la foc mic, numai un minut, amestecand mereu si avind grija ca faina sa nu se coloreze deloc apoi se stinge cu laptele fierbinte, adaugat in 2-3 rinduri, amestecand de fiecare data, pana cind se desfac toate cocoloasele formate, ca sa rezulte un sos omogen. Se sareaza si, facultativ, se acreste putin cu zeama sau sare de lamiie, numai dupa ce s-a luat cratita de pe foc. Se aromeaza cu patrunjel sau marar taiat marunt. Ciupercile taiate marunt si bine spalate se trec prin masina de tocat. Ceapa taiata marunt se caleste un minut in untdelemn, apoi se adauga ciupercile, foaia de dafin, zeama de lamiie, piper, o lingurita rasa de sare. Se lasa la foc mic acoperite sa fiarba circa 30 minute, ca sa scada toata apa ce o lasa si sa se inmoaie. Cind este gata, se adauga si smantana. Se ung tartinele cu un strat de 3-4 mm. Deasupra, se rade branza.

      Dintre alternativele la reteta Tartine cu sos alb cu ciuperci, va recomandam:


      Tartine fierbinți rapide și crocante cu ciuperci champignon!

      Tartine fierbinți cu ciuperci champignon – aromate, crocante și nemaipomenit de apetisante! Atât de gustoase, iar cel mai important se pregătesc simplu și rapid. Acest preparat vă vine mereu în ajutor – familia și oaspeții vor fi pur și simplu încântați!

      INGREDIENT:

      – 120 gr de ciuperci champignon

      METHOD OF PREPARATION:

      1. Setați cuptorul la 180°С și îl lăsați să se încălzească.

      2. Treceți cașcavalul prin răzătoarea mare. Ciupercile le tăiați cuburi foarte mici sau le dați prin răzătoarea mare. Ceapa o tăiați la fel bucăți foarte mici.

      3. Transferați ingredientele într-un vas, le amestecați, adăugați maioneză și mai amestecați o dată. Condimentați compoziția cu sare și piper negru.

      4. Ungeți fiecare felie de franzelă cu câte aproximativ 1 lingură de umplutură, repartizând-o uniform, și așezați tartinele pe tava unsă cu unt.

      5. Dați tava la cuptorul preîncălzit până la 180°С pentru 15-16 minute.

      E timpul potrivit să pregătiți o cafea sau un ceai pentru aceste tartine delicioase. Sunt crocante și cu o minunată aromă de cașcaval! Ciupercile se combină perfect cu cașcavalul și ceapa, care nu se evidențiază din gustul comun, dar îl completează foarte bine.


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